TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 7 Professional Ethics

Telangana TSBIEĀ TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material 7th Lesson Professional Ethics Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material 7th Lesson Professional Ethics

Question 1.
Enumerate some ethical norms that should be followed by teachers and doctors.
Teachers should observe certain ethical Norms such as :

  1. A true teacher is a lifelong learner. He should never feel that he knows everything or that he is so experienced that he can go without preparation to the class.
  2. A teacher should be sensitive by calling him stupid, “dumb”, etc. This can have a crippling effect on the child. The child may be demoralized, sink into depression and, in extreme cases even commit suicide.
  3. A good teacher draws out the best from each child.
  4. The teacher should try to avoid punishment as far as possible. Punishment can be in the form of imposition. Corporal punishment should be avoided at all costs as not only is it ethically unacceptable but is also against the law.
  5. The teacher should be a role model who inspires the respect of the students. Her dress and mode of inter-action with students as well as colleagues should be beyond reproach. If a teacher frequently uses her mobile phone in class, she loses the moral authority to reprimand students when they do the same.
  6. The teacher should strive to be a friend, philospher and guide to students. The relationship with students continues beyond the classroom. The teacher should be ready to listen patiently to the problems and difficulties of students, whether related to academics or pertaining to their personal life. Teachers can play a stabilizing role in the life of students by showing tolerance, sympathy and compassion.

Important duties of physicians include :

  1. Treating patients to the best of one’s ability and judgement and offering the best standards of treatment.
  2. Refraining from causing harm to the patient.
  3. Refraining from performing or aiding abortion and euthanasia, (mercy killing)
  4. Refraining from any form of corruption or impropriety with patients, particularly women.
  5. Maintaining confidentiality about the problems and diseases of patients.
  6. Placing the interest of the patient above one’s own interest.
  7. Leaving surgeries and specilized care to those who are trained in those fields.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 7 Professional Ethics

Question 2.
What are some of the ethical practices that should be adopted by politicians and the police?

  1. Personal integrity and impeccable standards of morality.
  2. Commitment to the welfare of the people.
  3. Thorough grasp of the problems and issues that concern the people.
  4. Efficient allocation and utilization of funds and resources.
  5. Speedy implementation of welfare and developmental schemes.
  6. Courage to withstand external influences and internal party pressures.
  7. Innovative thinking and problem solving.
  8. conforming to the laws, including those related to election funding and accounts.
  9. Shunning corruption, nepotism and misuse of power.
  10. Compassion for people, particularly the under privileged and weak sections of society and respect for women.
  11. Maintaining the highest standards of property, fairness and decorum in the legislative assembly, parliament and government offices as well as in public.

Police :

  1. Affirm allegiance to the constitution of India and respect the rights of all citizens.
  2. Be ready to lay down life in the line of duty.
  3. Enforce all laws without questioning their property or need.
  4. Enforce the law strictly without fear or favour, malice or vindictiveness.
  5. Use discretion in the use of force. Force should be resorted to only when persuasion, advice and warnings fail.
  6. Function within their limits and not usurp the powers of the judiciary by meting out punishment to the guilty.
  7. Strive to prevent crime in the first place, rather than solve it.
  8. Remember that they too are members of the public. /
  9. Earn the confidence and respect of the members of the public, without whose co-operation it would be difficult to discharge the various duties.
  10. Be sympathetic and responsive to all members of the public, both rich and poor. Be particularly considerate to the under privileged and to women.
  11. Be courteous and pleasant in dealing with the public.
  12. Be irreproachable in private life by maintaining high standades of honesty and integrity.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 7 Professional Ethics

Question 3.
The highest standards of morality should be observed by those in the Civil Services and the Judiciary. Do you agree?
The civil services encompass a wide range of services at the Central as well as the state level. Thus apart from IAS and IPS, we have the Indian Foreign Service, Indian Forest Service, Accounts and Audit Service, Railway Service, Health Service, Engineering Service, Postal Service.

Civil Servant must follow :

  1. Discharge official duty with responsibility, honesty accountability and without discrimination based on caste, creed, gender or religion.
  2. Ensure effective management, leadership and development.
  3. Avoid misuse of official position or information.
  4. Serve as instruments of good governance and foster social and economic development.

The Draft Public Services Bill 2007 :

  1. Patriotism and national pride.
  2. Allegiance to the constitution.
  3. Objectivity, impartiality, honesty, diligence, courtesy and transparency are the three important area where the public servant should be guided.

The qualities of the Civil Servant :
i) Integrity :
Civil servants should be guided in their decisions solely by pubjic interest, they should not make personal profit by accepting money and other favours.

ii) Impartiality :
Decisions should be based on the merit alone.

iii) Commitment to public service :
Service should be rendered in a fair, effective and courteous manner.

iv) Accountability :
Civil servants are accontable for their decisions and should be willing to subject themselves to scruting.

v) Devotion to duty :
Civil servants should show unstinting devotion towards their duties and responsibilities.

vi) Exemplary behaviour :
Civil servants should be a model of good behaviour.

Ethical standards thai an advocate should observe :

  1. The dignity of the court should be maintained under all circumstances.
  2. He should not communicate with the judge in private or use influence or coercion.
  3. He should not do anything illegal while dealing with opposite party.
  4. He should refuse to represent clients who insist on unfair or improper means.
  5. The reputation of the opposite party should not be damaged on false grounds.
  6. If the judge is close relative, the advocate should not plead the case.
  7. The advocate should not appear in any case where there is a conflict of interest. He should not represent establishments of which he is a member.
  8. He should not stand surety for the client.
  9. He should not appear in a case where he himself is a witness.
  10. He should uphold the interest of the client irrespective of his personal opinions.
  11. He should not suppress material evidence.
  12. He should not advertise or solicit work.

Special qualities that a judge should possess are :

  1. He should be a model of integrity and propriety.
  2. He should have vast knowledge, particularly with reference to the laws of the land.
  3. He should be unprejudiced and impartial and not be influenced by his personal opinions.
  4. He should not show discrimination on the grounds of caste, creed, religion, gender etc.
  5. He should use discretion and insight in interpreting laws jn the present day context.
  6. He should be incorruptible and fearless.
  7. He should not allow unethical practices, such as adjourments on flimsy grounds.
  8. He should show compassion and have abundant patience.
  9. He should not have affiliations to political parties.
  10. He should have the courage to pass strictures against the Government, if warranted, and show no fear in dealing with cases relating to corruption or impropriety in high places.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 7 Professional Ethics

Question 4.
Write an essay on ethical practices that should be followed in Corporate Management and business.
Ethics in Management:

  1. Business Ethics Management System is a “set of interdependent policies, processes and procedures that a company uses to conduct its operations legally, ethically and consistent with its values”.
  2. Ethical issues include the rights and duties between a company and its employees, customers or clients, shareholders, – competitors and the general public.
  3. It encompasses diverse areas and issues such as protection of the environment, employee welfare measures, fair trade practices and marketing strategies, transparency about potential health risks.

Ethics in Business :

  1. Children should not be employed. In fact, child labour is not only unethical but illegal.
  2. Adequate wages should be paid to workers and medical facilities provided.
  3. The product being sold should meet the requirements of the client.
  4. Quality control should be maintained. A contractor should not use bricks or sand of inferior quality.
  5. Goods should be weighed correctly. Traders often cheat customers by using inaccurate weighing scales.
  6. Harmful colours and preservatives to make food items attractive should be avoided.
  7. Artificial scarcity of goods should not be created.
  8. Defective goods should be replaced without harassing the customer.
  9. False claims should not be made about a product.
  10. Pollution and degradation of natural resources should be avoided.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 7 Professional Ethics

Question 5.
Write an essay on ethical practices that should be followed in general by people of all professions.
i) Ethics in corporate Management :
Many companies framed social responsibility charters and declared their commitment to ethical practices of conducting business. The famous philosopher says “All for ourselves, and nothing for other people, seems, in every age of the world, to have been the vile maxim of the masters of man kind”.

ii) Ethics in Business, Industry, Finance, Sales :
It is not just large corporate houses that should follow a model code of ethics and social responsibility. Whether one is a businessman or a salesman or a contractor or a tailor, one should adopt ethical practices at work. Profit should not be the sole motivating factor.

iii) Ethics in Eductation :
According to Abdul Kalam “If a country is to be free of corruption and a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher”.

Teachers are expected to maintain high standards of morality, besides being good at their subject.

Education has become a commodity, to be sold at a premium. SchoQls and colleges have been reduced to coaching centres and the emphasis is on providing intensive training in certain subjects only.

iv) Ethics in Civil Services :
It is system of Parliamentary democracy of India, the ministers are the elected representatives of the people and are the vested with the responsibility of running the administration of country.

However, as ministers are not well-versed with the intricacies of administration they mainly focus on making executive decisions. It is the civil servants who are entrusted with the onerous task of implementing the details of policy.

The civil servants should discharge their duties with responsibility, honesty, accountability and without discrimination based on caste, creed, gender or religion.

v) Ethics in politics :
According to Muhammand Iqbal “Nations are born in the hearts of poets, they prosper and die in the hands of politicians”.

According to Nikita “Politicians are the same all over. They promise to build bridges even when there are no rivers”.

According to John F. Kennedy “Ask not what country can do for you, Ask what you can do for the country”. These inspiring message should be followed by citizens as well as politicians.

vi) Ethics in Medicine :
Doctors in India have been accorded the highest status and reverence in India since times immemorial. “Vaidyo narayano hari” goes the saying, an affirmation that Doctors are living forms of Gods.

Many Doctors today charge lot of fees, prescribe unnecessary tests or refer patients to several specialists and “super specialists” even for simple ailments.

Besides, it is difficult to resist the allure of expensive gifts and exotic holidays dangled by medical companies before the doctor for prescribing; whether needed or not medicines or that particular company. These unethical practices should be curbed.

vii) Ethics in Police :
The core functions of the police include enforcing the law, maintaining peace, and protecting the life, property, and rights of all citizens. The Ministry of Home Affairs, India, laid down a model code of conduct for the police in 1985. Accordingly, the police are expected to follow some ethics.

It is essential to identify and remove the black sheep in the police force. It is also imperative that the police force is given a measure of autonomy and is freed from the influence of the rich and politically influential sections of society.

viii) Ethics in Judiciary and Legal Services :
Advocate Act, of 1961 lays down rules on the professional and ethical standards that an advocate should observe, some ethical values.

Judges are vested with duties of great responsibility and hold offices of public trust. An independent and fearless Judiciary is essential for democracy to flourish.

Leave a Comment