Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material 8th Lesson Health and Nutrition Textbook Questions and Answers.
TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material 8th Lesson Health and Nutrition
Write a short essay about some of the important nutrients that are needed for good health during adolescence, including important sources and effects of deficiency.
List out 15 guidelines that should be followed by adolescents regarding food habits and exercise.
1) A varied diet is necessary :
A diet which is low in fat, moderately high in carbohydrates and rich in protein is ideal for adolescents.
2) A variety of grains and pulses should be consumed :
A diet containing whole grains, pulses, vegetables, fruits and milk can prevent most deficiency diseases.
3) Fresh vegetables and fruits should be consumed :
Vegetables and fruits must be consumed in plenty as they are rich in nutrients like beta-carotene, folate, calcium, riboflavin and iron.
About 300 grams of vegetables, including 50 grams of green leafy vegetables should be consumed daily. About 100 grams of fruits should be eaten daily.
4) A wide variety of vegetables and fruits should be eaten :
For maximising nutrient benefits of different foods. Fresh amla, guava, banana, certain vegetables such as turnips, citrus fruits like orange and lime, are rich in “Vitamin C”. A natural chemical that prevents heart disease and some kinds of cancer.
5) Milk and meat :
Foods of animal origin like milk and meat should be included in the diet. Vegetarians must use milk as supplement for B12 deficiency.
6) Rich in Iron foods must be eated :
Green leafy vegetables, whole grains and nuts are rich in iron and should be eaten by teenagers, particularly girls.
7) Fried foods must be less :
They increase the risk of obesity, stroke, heart disease, diabetes and also various kinds of cancers.
8) Processed foods should be avoided :
They contain additives like chemical preservatives, colour, excessive salt and sugar.
9) The intake of sugar should be restricted :
The amount of sugar per day should not exceed 90 grams and this includes the sugars that are found naturally in fruits.
Artificial sweetners such as aspartame and sucralose contain less calories than sugar but some studies have shown that they may be harmful and could cause serious health problems if taken regularly.
10) Salt intake should be restricted :
Per day one should use only less than 6 gram. Salt consists of 40% sodium which is harmful and 60% chloride bread also consists of sodium. Excess of Sodium undertake risk of hypertension, Osteoporosis, kidney disease and certain kinds of cancer.
11) 3-4 litres of water every day :
It is essential to take water daily. Water helps to flush out toxins and waste products from the system.
12) Breakfast is the most important meal of the day :
Breakfast should not be skipped. Dosa, upma, idli and paratha are nutritions as they contain variety of grains, pulses and lentils and sometimes vegetables too. Sprouts are also good.
13) Eat a Number of small Meals :
It is preferable to eat a number of small meals rather than two or three heavy ones.
14) Meals should be had at regular timings :
Avoid over-eating, binge eating or prolonged fasting. Crash diets and mono diets should be avoided.
15) Eat in a peaceful Environment :
Leisurely as the body absorbs nutrition best when there is minimum stress. Avoid watching T.V. while eating and instead, relish the food.
Write a short essay about the spread and prevention of communicable diseases.
The disease that spread from person to person through disease causing organisms such as virus, bacteria, fungus, and protozoa.
The most common ways communicable diseases spread from person to person are
i) Transmission of germs through air :
Sneezing and coughing cause germs to be expelled from nose and these germs may be inhaled by people around.
ii) Contaminated food and water :
Diseases like cholera, dysentery, typhoid and infective hepatitis spread through the contamination of food and water. Sometimes sewage water gets mixed with drinking water.
iii) Direct and Indirect contact with the infected person :
Diseases like T.B. spread among close members of the family who have prolonged contact with the infected person. Sharing of utensils and bed clothes increase chances of the spread of the disease. Diseases like HIV spread through sexual contact with an infected persons as well as through sharing of syringes and transfusion of blood from an injected person.
iv) Bites from insects and Animals :
Malaria, dengue and chikungunya are spread by the bite of mosquitoes which harbour the parasites.
Precautions to prevent spread of commuicable diseases :
i) Wash hands frequently :
It is the best single step can give substantial protection against infectious diseases.
ii) Handle and prepare food safely :
Food should be prepared and served in a hygienic manner. Sometimes a person may be a silent carrier of a disease, without personally suffering any symptoms. “Typhoid Mary”, a silent carrier of typhus germs, infected nearly 50 persons in the U.S. during her career as a cook. 3 of her victims died of the disease.
iii) Keep the house and office clean :
Studies house shown that the vegetable cutting board and the office computer may contain more germs them toilet seat. The kitchen and bath rooms in particular, should be disinfected regularly. Houses should be mosquito proofed, if possible.
iv) Do not let water stagnate :
Water should not be allowed to stagnate in any area as it can become a breeding place for mosquitoes.
v) Do not share personal items :
Personal articles like tooth brushes, combs, towels and razors should not be shared.
vi) Cover your mouth and nose while coughing and sneezing :
If we do so we can prevent transmission of germs.
vii) Remain home when sick :
One should remain at home only for few days if they are suffering from diseases like chickenpox or typhoid.
viii) Drink purified water and eat in hygienic places :
Water should be boiled or purified inorder to kill germs. Eating bajjis and chaats at wayside bandis must be curbed in winter atleast.
ix) Do not spit or urinate in public places :
Diseases like diarrohoea and T.B. spread rapidly in such unhygenic conditions.
x) Dispose of garbage carefully :
Garbage and kitchen waste should not be thrown out in the open should be disposed of in a hygienic manner.
xi) Take proper care of pets :
Pets should be kept clean and should be regularly vaccinated against rabies and other diseases.
xii) Take all required vaccines :
Several communicable diseases can be prevented by taking vaccines which lend immunity against the particular disease.
xiii) Safe sex practices :
H.I.V/AIDS, Syphilis, Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea are example of unsafe sex. Prostitutes and drug addicts are high risk group for STDs.
xiv) Eat nutritious food :
Nutritious food keeps the body strong and builds immunity to various diseases.
What are the causes of risk behaviour among adolescents and how can such behaviour be checked?
Adolescence is commonly referred to as the “troubled teens”. Teenagers sometimes display poor self-control, judgement, and decision making. Some of the risky and reckless behaviours among the teens are
i) Incomplete development of the brain :
The part of the brain which is responsible for problem solving and decision making, is not fully developed during adolescence.
ii) Spurt in hormones :
Many hormones are secreted during adolescence, such as adrenal stress hormones, growth hormones and sex hormones such as testosterone, oestrogen and progesterone. These harmones influence mood and behaviour. A small argument can flare up into an ugly incident of stabbing.
iii) Peer pressure :
Peer pressure and approval greatly influence teen behaviour. It has been observed that teens indulge in more risk taking in the company of their peers.
Assertion of individuality :
Adolesecence is a time when youngsters wish to assert themselves by an open defiance of authority. It is thrilling to do something that is prohibited and to test the limits of one s skills or endurances.
How to Avoid Risk:
i) Support of Parents and Teachers:
- The teen receives lone and support from the parents and other family members.
- The teen feels free to talk to his parents and share his innermost thoughts.
- The teen has access to other adults with whom he can discuss his problems.
- Parents play an active role in the teen’s academic and extra curricular activities.
- The school / college is a place where the teen feels at ease and can seek the advice of teachers.
ii) Boundaries Laid down by parents:
- Parents lay down standards for appropriate behaviour.
- Parents discipline the child when rules are broken.
- Parents are aware of the movements of the teen and the company he keeps.
- Parents ensure that the number of outings and the time spent does not cross a reasonable limit.
- Parents have an idea about the activities of the teen on the internet.
Structured Time use :
- The teenager should be actively encouraged to pursue a hobby such as music or painting.
- The teen should participate in a sport like cricket or football at least thrice a week.
- Interesting home assignments should be given at school to keep the teen occupied productively.
- The teen can take up some part time course to improve his skills. It could be an online course.
- The teen should be encouraged to take up some community or social work with friends, say volunteering to teach slum children twice a week or participating in a door to door campaign about creating awareness about proper garbage disposal.
Discuss the effects of substance abuse. How can substance abuse be prevented.
- Substance abuse can cause neurological, respiratory and cardio – vascular damage, depending on the type of drug, dosage, frequency and individual factors.
- It can also lead to frightening psychological effects like hallucinations.
- Initially a small dose of the substance is enough to. give a high or feeling of euphoria but later increasingly large amounts of the substance may be needed to experience the same intensity of sensation or experience.
- Often multiple drugs are combined and used with alcohol. This is far more dangerous than taking a single drug.
- Sudden stopping of the abused substance gives rise to withdrawal symptoms which may be unbearable, such as tremors, severe depression, seizures and in extreme cases, even death.
- Risk behaviour increases when drugs are taken and may result in fatal injuries. It is common for example, for accidents to take place when people drive under the influence of alcohol.
- Drug addicts may have several sexual partners and this increases the likelihood of contracting STDs.
- It is not just the individual but the family and also society that are impacted by substance abuse.
- Poor academic and work performance, dropping out of school or college, inability to hold a job, stress in relationships and break up of marriage, inability to meet family or societal obligations, these are just a few of the effects of drug abuse.
Prevention of substance Abuse among teens:
- The earlier a person indulges in substance abuse the greater is the chance of becoming an addict.
- It is important therefore to prevent substance abuse from childhood itself.
- Prevention is effected at three levels. Primary, secondary and teritary.
- At the primary level the aim is to reduce incidence at the secondary level, the aim is to reduce. Prevalence while at the teritary level the focus is on treatment and rehabilitation.
- The family, school, community and neighbourhood can play a crucial role in inculcating good values in adolescents and ensuring that teens are sensitised to the dangers of substance abuse.
- The individual should develop enough self-worth and selfconfidence to be able to refuse drugs even if pressurised by friends.
- In recent years the Government of India has prohibited advertisements relating to liquor and cigarettes on TV and has also prohibited the glorification such substances in movies.