TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 6 Religious and Cultural Values

Telangana TSBIEĀ TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material 6th Lesson Religious and Cultural Values Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material 6th Lesson Religious and Cultural Values

Question 1.
Write an essay on the tenents and ethical values in Hinduism or Islam?

  1. There are six orthodox system in Hindu Philosophy.
  2. They are Nyaya, Visashika, Samkhya, Yogi, Poorva Mimansa and Uttara Mimansa.
  3. The term “Upanishad” means sitting near to receive sacred teaching.
  4. Of the 108 Upanishads that are extant, 12 are considered the principal ones, including the Katha Upanishad, Kena, Isha, Prasna, Chandogya, Mandukya and Aitareya.
  5. The Bhagvadgita, set in the narrative frame work of the Mahabharat, is composed of 700 verses spread over 18 chapters.
  6. The Gita’s message of selfless action is a source of perennial inspiration and is relevant for all ages and times.
  7. The Ramayana is one of the most sacred epics of Hinduism. Written by Valmiki, it consists of 24,000 verses in seven books.
  8. Rama, considered by Hindus as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu, embodies the 16 qualities of an ideal man.
  9. The Mahabharatha is the longest epic in the world. Writen by Vyasa, it consists of 1,00,000 siokas.
  10. It centres on the struggle for sovereignty between the Pandavas and Kauravas, who were consins, and the ensuing battle of Kurukshatra.
  11. The epic is a treatise on Dharma and contains myriad small stories within stories.
  12. The AranyaParva, in which Yuddhishtaraanswers the queries of the Yaksha arid is an exposition on values and ethics.

Core Beliefs of Hinduism :

  1. Belief in the divinity or vedas.
  2. Lord Brahma brings about creation. Lord Vishnu maintains the universe and Lord Shiva represents the principle of dissolution and recreation.
  3. An individual creates his own destiny by his thoughts, words and deeds. This law of cause and effect is called Karma.
  4. Every soul evolves through a series of births and deaths until all Karmas have been resolved.
  5. A master or a guru is essential to follow the right path.
  6. All must follow the practice of non-injury or ahimsa.
  7. There may be several ways to. salvation, including Bhakti marga, Gnan marga and Karma Yoga marg.
  8. AdiSankaracharya, the founder of a ‘Advita Philosophy’ proclaimed the Jeeva and Paramatma are identical. Madhva- charya, the expent of ‘Dvaita Philosphy’ declared that the two are eternally different and Ramanujacharya, the founder of Visishtadvaita proclaimed that the two are different and yet not different.

Islamic :
The true Muslim believes in the following articles of faith.

  1. He believes in one God, Supreme and Eternal, Infinite and Mighty, Merciful and Compassionate, Creator and Provider. This belief, in order to be effective, requires complete trust and hope in God, submission to his will and reliance on his aid. It secures man’s dignity and saves him from fear and despair, from guilt and confusion.
  2. He believes in all the messengers of God without any discrimination among them. The messengers the great teachers of the good and champions of right.
  3. The true Muslim believes in all the scriptures and revelations of God.
  4. The true Muslim believes that the angels of God are spiritual and splendid beings. They have no physical desire of any kind nor material needs.
  5. The true Muslim believes in the last Day of Judgement. This world will come to an end some day and the dead will rise to stand for their final and fair trail.
  6. The true Muslim believes in the knowledge of God and His power to plan and execute His plans. God is not indifferent to this world nor is He neutral it. His knowledge and power are in action at Jill times to keep order in His vast domain and maintain full command over His creations.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 6 Religious and Cultural Values

Question 2.
Write an essay about the important teachings and values in Buddhism or Jainism.
Buddhism :

  1. Buddhism is a religion which originated in India in the 6th century B.C.
  2. It is a nontheist religion as there is no belief in a supreme being or God.
  3. It is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, . commonly known as the Buddha Enlightened one.
  4. There are two schools of Buddhism – Theravada and Mahayana both of which spread throughout – various countries in Asia.

The four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path:

They are :
i) Dukha :
There is Dukha or suffering.

ii) Dukha Samudhaya :
There is a cause for suffering. Wants or desires are the reason for suffering. In a larger sense, Ignorance is the root of all suffering.

iii) Dukh Nirodha :
Suffering can be stopped.

iv) Dukha Nirodha Marga :
There is a way to stop suffering.

In Buddhism Samsara is defined as continual repetitive cycle of birth and death that takes place because of the ignorance of the being.

Buddhism advocates the adherence to five precepts. These are not in the nature of commandments with the threat of punishment if violated. Buddhists are expected to.

i) Avoid taking the life of beings :
Allbeings have a right should be respected. Buddha did not advocate vegetarianism but said that animals should not be killed for the sake of meat. Mahayana Buddhists, however are strict vegetarians.

ii) Avoid taking things not given :
A person should not steal or take anything not intended for him.

iii) Avoid sensual misconduct :
Any overinduigence of the flesh should be avoided, including greed and gluttony.

iv) Refrain from false speech :
One should avoid telling lies or saying things that may harm another.

v) Abstain from substances that cause intoxication and heedlessness :
One should refrain from alcohol and drugs.


  1. Jainism is an ancient Indian religion which lays great emphasis on the principle of ahimsa or non-violence towards all living beings and equality among all forms of life.
  2. The word Jainism is derived from Jin, which means “to conquer”.
  3. Those who are successful in achieving self control and detachment are called Jinas.
  4. Vardhamaa Mahavira is most influential teacher of Jainism.
  5. Jainism proclaims that the universe was never created nor will it cease to exist. It is independent and self-suffient.
  6. The cosmic wheel of time, called Kalachakra rotates without a pause. It is divided into two halves Utsarpini and Avasarpini.
  7. Jainism lays a lot of emphasis on self cOntrok Ascetics are expected to follow more rigorous standards of self control. They have to undertake five major vows which include.

a) Ahimsa :
The ascetic vows not to harm other living beings, either intentionally or unintentionally.

b) Satya :
Truth must be followed at all times. In a situation where speaking the truth could lead to violence, silence is to be observed.

c) Asteya :
This implies not only refraining from theft but not accepting anything that is not willingly offered.

d) Brahmacharya :
Control over the senses should be exercised.

e) Aparigraha :
The word means non-possessiveness. Detachment from people and objects should be developed.

f) Prayer and Meditation :
Jainism places a lot of importance on meditation. It is believed that meditation helps one to control passions and thoughts. The type of meditation practised by Jains is called Samayika.

g) Fasting :
Fasting, particulary during festivals, is an important practice in Jainism. A unique ritual in Jainism is a holy fast into death called Sallekhana or Santhara.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 6 Religious and Cultural Values

Question 3.
Write an essay about the important teachings and values in Sikhism or Christianity.

  1. Guru Nanak asserted that while realization of truth is important is truthful living.
  2. Spiritual and secular life are interwined in Sikhism as asceticism is discouraged.
  3. A life of purity, self-control and truthfulness is deemed superior to a purely contemplative life.
  4. Guru Hargobind, the sixth guru, stated succinctly that the temporal or “Miri” and the spiritual or “Piri” realms should co-exist.
  5. Guru Nanak emphasized the concept of service.
  6. Seva or service is an important as Simran.
  7. He established the system of the Langar or community kitchen which symbolizes the spirit of sharing and equality.
  8. Even today the langar is an integral part of the gurudwara, the place of worship of sikhs.
  9. People of all faiths are welcome. Sikhs are expected to serve humanity with their “tan”, “man” and “dhan”, i.e., body, mind and weath.
  10. Sikhism delcares that all men are created equal and shuns discrimination based on caste, creed or gender. Women are accorded equal rights as men.

Christianity :

  1. Christianity is the world’s largest religion with approximately 2.2 billion followers.
  2. It is a monothesitic religion based on the life and teaching of Jesus as presented in the New Testament of the Bible.
  3. Christians refer to Jesus as Christ or the Messiah, the promised saviour.
  4. Christianity began as a Jewish sect, in the mid-lst century and gradually spread to the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization.

The main points include.

  1. Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the son of God and the Holy Spirit.
  2. The death, resurrection and ascension of Christ.
  3. Christ’s second coming, the Day of Judgement and Salvation of the faithful.

Ten commandments :
These commandments were inscribed by God on two stone tablets and given to Mosses on Mount Sinai. They include,

  1. I am the Lord thy God. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
  2. Thou shalt not make unto any graven image.
  3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord in vain.
  4. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
  5. Honour thy father and thy mother.
  6. Thou shalt not kill.
  7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
  8. Thou shalt not steed.
  9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
  10. Thou shalt not cover thy neighbour’s house.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 6 Religious and Cultural Values

Question 4.
Discuss the need for religious tolerance. Enumerate some of the important concepts of any religion you admire.

  1. Religion is the foundation of ethical life. It is natural for every person to take pride in his religion and feel it is the best.
  2. In a democracy people of all faiths have the freedom to follow the religion of their choice.
  3. However, this does not give one the right to look down on other religions or treat people of other religions with contempt or suspicion as this will lead to social disharmony and unrest.
  4. In India, people of different religions, castes, tribes, sects live together.
  5. They should understand the essence of all religions and realize that religion helps to lead a value based life.
  6. The essence of all religions is the same.
  7. A religion is defined as a particular system of faith and worship. It often involves the belief in and worship of a super human controlling power, especially a personal God or gods.
  8. The predominant religions of the world are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism. Other Religions that are followed are Jainism, Judaism, Bahai, Taoism and Confucianism.
  9. India is the birth place of several religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.
  10. About 80% of India’s population comprises Hindus.
  11. The second most dominant religion is Islam which is followed by about 13% of the population.
  12. Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism are other religions that are practised in India. India is a secular country and citizens enjoy the freedom to practise the religion of their choice.
  13. Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world. It is the dominant religion in India and consists of several diverse traditions, notably, Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Saktism.
  14. Major scriptures include the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagvad Gita.
  15. The term Hindu was originally a geographic term and referred to people who lived beyond the river Sindhu or Indus.
  16. The term Hiuduism was introduced in the 19th century to denote the religious, philosophical and cultural traditions followed in India.

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