Here students can locate TS Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Unit 5 Biotechnology to prepare for their exam.
TS Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Unit 5 Biotechnology
→ Biotechnology is the science of utilising the properties and uses of microorganisms or to exploit cells and the cell constituents at industrial level for generating useful products essential to life and human welfare.
→ The two core techniques that enabled birth of modern biotechnology are Genetic engineering and tissue culture.
→ Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology are restriction enzymes, polymerase enzymes, ligases, vectors and the host organism.
→ Restriction endonuclease recognises a specific palindromic nucleotide sequence in the DNA.
→ The DNA used as a carrier for transferring a fragment of foreign DNA into a suitable host is called vector. ^
→ Large scale production involves the use of bioreaction.
→ Downstream processing and quality control testing vary from product to product Biotechnology has given humans several useful products by using microbes, plants, animals and their metabolic machinery.
→ The applications of biotechnology include therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture processed food, bioremediation, waste treatment and energy production.
→ Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) are plants, animals, bacteria and fungi whose genes have been altered by manipulation.
→ Biotechnology in agriculture are the production of pest resistant plants, eg :Bt cotton. Biotechnology in medicine have made immense impact in the area of health care. Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat heriditary diseases.
→ Molecular diagnosis helps to solve the problems of early diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
→ Herbert Boyer
- Fields: biology scientist
- Notable awards: National Medal of Science (1990)
Herbert Boyer : Born in 1936. He graduated at University of Pittsburgh in 1963, followed by three years of post – graduate studies at Yale in 1966. He took assistant professorship at the University of California. Boyer had discovered a restriction enzyme of E.coli, that cut DNA strands at specific DNA sequence producing “Sticky ends” that could stick to otherpieces of DNA.
→ Stanley Cohen
- Born: November 17, 1922 Brooklyn, New York
- Nationality: American
- Fields: Biochemiry
- Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis
- Alma mater: University of Michigan
- Thesis: The Nitrogenous Metabolism of the Earthworm (1949)
- Doctoral advisor: Howard B. Lewis
- Known for: Nerve growth factor
- Notable awards: Nobel Prize In Physiology or Medidne (1986), Franklin Medal (1987)
Stanley Cohen : a Stanford University professor, had been working on ways to isolate specific genes in antibiotic carrying plasmids and clone them individually through introducing them to E.coli bacteria.
Boyer and Cohen met in 1972 while presenting papers in Hawaii at a conference or bacterial plasmids.
Following the conference, the two colleagues met and discussed with each other. Both agreed to collaborate and in a matter of months succeeded in splicing a piece of foreign DNA into a plasmid carrier, which then inserted genetic information into a bacterium. Then the bacterium reproduced, copied the foreign DNA into its offspring. This break through was the basis upon which the discipline of biotechnology was founded.