TS Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Unit 2 Microbiology

Here students can locate TS Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Unit 2 Microbiology to prepare for their exam.

TS Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Unit 2 Microbiology

→ Bacteria is omnipresent It occurs in all climatic condition even in extreme conditions.

→ Bacteria are important microbes.

→ Even though bacteria are microscopic, they perform certain acts of living things i.e., they take food, grow and reproduce.

→ Cell wall provides shape and protection to bacteria.

→ Bacteria occur in several shapes – cylindrical (Bacillus), spherical (Cocci), spiral (Spirillum).

→ Flagella are present in the motile bacteria depending upon the number and distribution of flagella bacteria are classified as Monotrichous, Lophotrichous, Amphitrichous and Peritrichous.

→ Bacteria normally reproduce by binary fission.

→ Bacterial plasmids can be manipulated in the laboratory and are used as vectors in rDNA technology.

→ Genetic exchange among bacteria takes place by conjugation, transformation and transduction.

TS Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Microbiology

→ Bacteria can be considered as both friends and foes of man.

→ The study of viruses is known as virology.

→ Viruses are very small infectious, obligate, intracellular parasites.

→ Viruses are acellular and lack metabolism of their own.

→ Virus has a central core of nucleic acid (DNA/RNA single stranded/double stranded). It is covered by protein coat capsid

→ Viroids have only nucleic acid Prions have only proteins.

→ Viruses are grouped according to their shared properties and are classified by ICTV system of classification.

→ TMV is rod shaped virus.

→ T – even bacteriophage is tadpole shaped

→ Virus replication is of two types namely Lytic cycle (virulent phages) and Lysogenic cycle (temperate phages).

→ Lytic cycle can be seen in T-even phage. This replication can be divided into 5 phases namely attachment, penetration, biosynthesis, maturation and release.

→ Lysogenic cycle can be seen in lambda bacteriophage in which the phage DNA becomes an integral part of bacterial DNA and replicates along with it Viruses causes several human, plant and animat diseases.

→ Some of the viruses can cause cancer and they are called oncogenic viruses.

TS Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Microbiology

→ Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632 – 1723) by Jan Verkolje

  • Born: October 24, 1632 Delft, Dutch Republic
  • Died: August 26, 1723 (age 90) Delft, Dutch Republic
  • Residence: Netherlands
  • Nationality: Dutch
  • Fields: Microscopist and Bilogist

He is commonly known as “the Father of Microbiology” and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology. Using his handcrafted microscopes, he was the first to observe and describe single – celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules, and which are now referred to as microorganisms. He was also the first to record microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa, and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels). Van Leeuwenhoek did not author any books, although he did write many letters. In 1674 Leeuwenhoek communicated his discoveries to the Royal Society of London, sending detailed drawings which were the first representations of Bacteria and Protozoa.

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