TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material 12th Lesson Forms of Governments Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material 12th Lesson Forms of Governments

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is Unitary form of Government? Explain its features.
In the Unitary Government the entire power of the government is vesed with the central government only.

A.V Dicey :
‘Unitary government is one in which the central power habitually exercises the supreme Legislature authority’.

Herman Finer :
Unitary government is one in which all powers and authorities are lodged with a centre whose will and agents are legally omnipotent over the whole area’.

J.W. Gamer :
Unitary government is one in which the whole power of the government is conferred by the constitution upon a single central organ from which the local governments derive their authority7′.

Features of Unitary Government:
a) Centralization of powers :
In unitary system, all powers are centralized in the hands of the central government and only centre is the reservoir of all state powers.

b) Provincial governments :
In unitary states, local/provincial governments are created and given power by the central governments. A provincial government directs their powers always derived from the central government. Ex. England.

c) Flexible constitution :
The central government alone has the power to amend the constitution and in this sense the constitution of a unitary state is always flexible like England.

d) Simple uniform administration :
The existence of an all-powerful government exercising power over all the people and places leads to the existence of simple, state and strong administration or the whole state.

e) Single citizenship :
In a unitary government, there is only single citizenship – the citizenship of the whole country. No provincial citizenship is given to its people.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 2.
What is Federal Government? Examine its Characteristics.
The term, federation is derived from Latin word ’Foedus’ meaning treaty or agreement. A federal polity comes into existence, either as a result of centripetal or centrifugal forces. The instrument by which a federation is brought about by the nature of a treaty or agreement between independent states and the new units of government, national or central which they agree to create. A new federal state is thus created to which sovereign states surrender their sovereignty and agree to become its component parts, for example, United States of America, Australia, India, Canada, etc.

Definitions of Federal Government :
Several political scholars have defined federation in different ways. Some definitions are the following.

Montesquieu :
Federation is a convention by which several parties agree to become members of larger on which they intend to establish’.

Herman Finer :
‘Federal states are one in which part of the authority and powers are vested in the local areas while another part is vested in a central institution deliberately constituted by an association of the local areas’.

A.V. Dicey :
‘A federal state is a political set-up intended to reconcile national unity and powers with the maintenance of state sights’.

J. W. Gamer :
‘Federal government is a system in which the totally of government power is divided and distributed between the centre and the states by the national constitution’.

K. C. Wheare :
A Federal government is a method of dividing power. So that the regional and central government independent’.

Features of Federal Government:
a) Written Constitution :
For a federal government the constitution must almost necessarily be a written constitution which determines the relation between the central and provincial/regional governments.

b) Rigid Constitution :
The natural corollary of the supremacy of the constitution and it being a written document, is that it should not be altered either by the central Legislatures.or by Regional Legislatures under their ordinary law-making procedure.

c) Division of powers :
In a federal political system, there is an essential feature of distribution of powers between central and regional governments under the constitution. Major sectors are vested with union/central and National and Provincial important things are vested with regional governments. For example, external affairs, exports and ports and education, agriculture health are exercised by union and state governments respectively.

d) Bicameralism :
Bicameralism is another important character of the federal government. In federal government, there should be Two-Chambers, representing people and states such as House of people and House states respectively.

e) Dual citizenship :
In a federal political system, constitution provides for dual citizenship to the citizens. Accordingly, the citizens have membership in both the centre and states simultaneously.

f) Independent Judiciary :
In a federal political system, independence of judiciary and intensity of judicial system is another important feature. Independence of judiciary will safeguard the minimum rights of people against the acts of Legislature and administrative authorities.

Question 3.
What is presidential form of Government? Discuss its features.
Under the presidential system, the Legislature and executive are two distinct departments of the government. There is more or less a separation between the two. The head of the state, the president, is real executive both as a Matter of law and fact and such power is the result of a direct grant from the constituent authority effected through express promises of the constitution.

Features of the Presidential Government :
a) President as Head of the state and government :
In a presidential government, president serves as the head of the state and government. He enjoys all the executive powers in practice. He implements the decisions and programmes of the government with the help of secretaries.

b) Separation of Legislature from the Executive :
In this form of government executive and Legislature are separate and independent of each other and do not interfere in the jurisdiction of each other.

c) Election/Head of the state and government :
Presidential executive, is not hereditary or nominated by the Legislature, but is elected by the people.

d) Impeachment of the President :
The removal by the impeachment is provided according to constitution, in case he is held guilty of violating, the oath of office. Usually, the power of impeachment is given to the legislature.

e) Checks and balances :
In a presidential government, there is another important feature that is, the principle of ‘checks and balances’. In presidential system, every organ enjoys autonomy and exercise powers independently. At the same time, every organ acts as a check against the excessive authority of the other organ. The legislature must give its consent to all decisions of the president and president must give his approval to the all decisions of the legislature. At the same time, judiciary reviews all constitutional cases and interprets them.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 4.
What is Parliamentary form of government?
In a parliamentary system a clear distinction is made between the head of the state and the head of the Government here, the head of the state King or Queen in Britain or President of India, possesses nominal or titular authority whereas real authority rests with the government of which Prime Minister is the head. Example : Australia, Canada, Japan etc.

Parliamentary form of government as a system in which the real executive, the cabinet, is immediately and legally responsible to the Legislature for its political policies and acts, ultimately responsible to the electorate.

Features of Parliamentary Governments :
a) Nominal and Real executives :
In parliamentary form of government there should be two kinds Of executive in the Political system one of them, National Executive is the Head of the state and other one is real executive, Head of the government is president and Head of the government is the Prime Ministers.

b) Co-ordination between the Legislature and executive :
Another important feature among, is that, there is a close relationship and co-ordination between legislature and executive bodies of the government. The executive members are selected from the Legislature and so executive remained as responsible for the Legislature for all its acts.

c) Significant role of the prime minister :
In parliamentary form of government, the prime minister holds the real executive authority. He holds the government as comer stone. He has the authority to from the council of ministers and also has right to reshuffle and dissolve the government.

d) Collective responsibility :
The most important feature of the parliamentary government works on the principle of collective responsibility. It means the ministers enjoy the office only as long as they have confidence of the parliament.

e) Individual responsibility :
In a parliamentary government, every minister is individually responsible to the Legislature for the efficient conduct of his department or office. In case there is any lapse in the administration, the ministers are personal answerable to parliament.

f) Dissolution of Lower House :
The head of the state can dissolve the lower house on the recommendation of the prime minister. If deadlock rises between cabinet and Legislature they can appeal to the electorate through elections.

g) Effective opposition :
In a parliamentary form of government opposition party is considered as soul of the democracy. If the ruling party loses its confidence in the Legislature, opposition party is the alternative to form a government and it works against ruling party through questioning the acts.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on merits and demerits of Unitary form of Government.
Merits of Unitary Government:
a) Powerful Administration :
In unitary government, all the powers of the government are vested in the hands of central government. It helps to take decisions fast and work timely and to maintain internal peace, laws and order.

b) Simple and less Expressive :
The unitary system of government easy and less in expressive for administration.

c) Flexible in Administration :
The administration of a unitary state is flexible and can easily adapt itself to the changing social needs and environment. Because it can amend the constitution as and when required.

d) Suitable for small states :
unitary form of government as it is simple and less expressive suitable for smalls states.

e) Quick decisions :
It can be very useful in meeting emergencies. Being a unitary governments, is provincial in nature and can take all necessary decisions quickly and implement with full force.

f) National integration :
In unitary government, there is a simple citizenship which shows no discrimination among its people and helps to national unity integrity and solidarity among its people.

Demerits of the Unitary Government:
a) Fascist Powers :
In unitary government, all powers are vested with single government and there is a scope for Fascist or dictatorial attitude.

b) Centralization of administration :
In unitary government, all powers are concen-trated with the single government and no scope for distribution of powers between union and provincial government and it leads to more burden on the central government to manage whole nation.

c) Unsuitable for Larger States :
unitary governments are suitable for smaller states whereas it is not suitable for larger state which has vast land larger population. Because such states have multi religions, racial and cultural people and unitary government cannot tackle with such society.

d) Neglect of local initiatives :
In unitary governments with centralization of powers and with sanctioning of limited powers to provincial governments, it discourages local governments from making their own policies.

e) Scope for growth of inefficiency :
In unitary government, with centralization of powers, each and every aspect of the society should be administered by the single administrative unit and it leads to inefficiency in providing provisions for its people.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 2.
Explain the merits and demerits of Parliamentary form of Government.
Merits of Parliamentary Government:
a) Harmony and co-ordination between Legislature and executive :
In a parliamentary government, it secures co-operation and co-ordination from the Legislature because it was formed with the single majority party from Legislature. It enacts laws and implementing laws through taking confidence of legislators.

b) A Scrub on Autocracy :
Parliamentary government effectively checks the despotic attitude of the majority party in the lower house of the Legislature. Legislators prevent the government from the making mistakes against public interest through its questioning and a vote of no-confidence in the other motions.

c) Governmentally Able and Experienced :
In a parliamentary government, Government should be consisted with the top leaders of the majority party. Able and experienced people from the party have a hold on the party and government.

d) Responsible Government :
In a parliamentary from a government, council of ministers along with prime minister hold the offices and enjoys the powers and acts on the collective responsibility to the Legislature. In a parliamentary system, opposition party controls the ruling party through its vigilance in the outside of the Legislature.

e) Flexible Government :
Flexibility is another merit of the parliamentary from of a government, according to Bagehot, under this government; the people can choose a ruler for the occasion who may be especially qualified to successfully pilot the ship of the state through motional crisis.

f) Alternative to Government :
Parliamentary system is in the real sense a government by criticism. The majority from the government the majority continues the opposition. The opposition must criticises the government. The lapses of the government are its opportunities and ruling party lost confidence opposition party is ready to hold the office.

Demerits of the Parliamentary Government:
a) Unstable Government :
The government has no fixed life. It remains in office only so long as it can retain parliamentary majority which is sentient to the vagaries of the represent actives.

b) Violation of the theory of separation of powers :
In a parliamentary of government, there is a combination of executive and Legislature functions in the same set of individuals lead to tramp while the same men may be at one members of the Legislature and the executive, their functions in the two roles are distinct but in political experience, they worked in no distinction.

c) Executive becomes Autocratic / tyranny of majority :
When the executive is confident of support by majority members in the Legislation, at is likely to become autocratic. The opposition feels helpless in correcting the erratic behaviour of the government because all decisions taken on the basis of voting.

d) Unsuitable for emergencies :
A national crisis cannot meet with promptness in parliamentary government because much of tis time wasted in discussions. Get emergency needs prompt action, while taking decisions, be fear of the opposition and the masses at large.

e) Bureaucratic Dictatorship :
In a parliamentary government, bureaucracy becomes unduly important. The ministers being amateurs heavily rely on bureaucratise for everything.

f) National Interests ignored :
In a parliamentary government, political parties often gnore the interests of the nation for the sake of interest of the party in power. All national aspects are divided in the interest of the party only.

Despite all there defects, parliamentary government is very popular. It is considered more democratic and a true reflection of the public opinion.

Question 3.
Discuss the merits and demerits of Federal form of Government.
a) Scope for unity in diversity :
The federal government, there is scope for achieving unity in diversity. It is very essential to the multireligions, multicultural and multilinguistic societies.

b) Against Dictatorship :
In the federal political system, there is a scope for preventing the rise of a single despotism, check the growth of bureaucratic authority and conserves the political liberties of people.

c) Less-burden on the centre :
In federal political system, there is distribution of powers between centre and state governments, according to the constitution and each discharges its duties accordingly. So, it decreases the burden upon the central govemment while executing its functions.

d) Scope for New Political experiments :
In a federal political system, regional gov-ernments will introduce new policies / and programmes and make experiments for the development of socio-economic spheres of the society.

e) Suitable for larger states :
Federation is said to be the only form of government which is suitable for vast or larger area states. Larger states can be administered with the constitutional distribution of powers between central and state governments.

f) Leads to efficient Administration :
In a federal form of governments, powers and functions are transferred to the local / state governments. As a result, with the limited subjects, centre can work efficiently and it has scope for concentrating on all important national interests.

Demerits of Federal Government:
a) Weak central government :
Federal government is a weak government due to dis-tribution of powers between the centre and state governments. Regional or provincial governments demand the centre for their regional cause.

b) Lack of uniform laws :
In a federal government, there is a chance to adopt different laws by federal and state governments. Laws passed by the various provincial governments are complex in nature. It leads to controversy between federal and state governments, or among state governments.

c) Controversies and dispute :
In federal political system, there is a distribution of subjects between centre and state governments. When it comes to the concurrent list, centre and state governments try to escape from their duties and subjects remain unimplemented or unfulfilled.

d) Expensive mechanism :
In federal political system, there are two sets of govern-ments, i.e., federal government at centre level and provincial government at regional level. It is more expensive to establish infrastructure of administrative units and re-cruitment and maintenance of bureaucracy.

e) Fear of Disintegration :
In federal political system, federal state itself is formed through treaty of federation or confederation. There is no certainity of sustainability of federation which stands upon the willingness of the provinces / states. For examples U.S.A. experienced such fear in 1882, USSR disintegrated and several states like Latin America, Balkan states faced such problems.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 4.
Distinguish between unitary and Federal form of Government.
Distinction between Unitary and Federal Governments :

Unitary Government Federal Government
1. May or may not be written constitution. 1. There will be written constitution.
2. It has Flexible constitution. 2. It has rigid constitution.
3. There is only one Government for the entire country. 3. There will be two types of governments, i.e., union level and provincial level.
4. Centralization of powers. 4. Decentralization of powers between centre and state governments.
5. Government is not as much Democratic form of government. 5. It is purely Democratic government which all governments take their part in Decision-making.
6. There are uniform laws throughout the country. 6. There are central laws and state laws.
7. No need of independent Judiciary. 7. A special judiciary with wide powers.
8. Possibility of despotism. 8. Centre and state work according to constitution, so no chance for despotism.
9. Government machinery is simple and flexible. 9. Government machinery is complex and rigid.
10. Suitable for smaller states. 10. Suitable for larger states.
11. Legislature may be bicameral (Britain) or unicameral (China). 11. Legislature should have two chambers.
12. Constitution may be supreme (Japan) / or may not be supreme (Britain). 12. Supremacy of the constitution.
13. Scope for political stability and integrity. 13. Limited scope for political stability and integrity.
14. The powers of regional governments are easily altered by the central government. 14. The powers of regional governments cannot be altered by the central government.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 5.
Write a Note on Presidential form of Government.
Presidential government is one in which the Executive is not responsible to the legislature for its acts. It is also known as single Executive government. Fixed Tenure government and Non- responsible government. Under this system a single person, namely, the President exercises all executive powers. The President as well as the Legislators assume their office and continue in power for a prescribed tenure as stipulated in the constitution.

The President is directly elected by the people who form into an Electoral college. “Further the president or the legislators are not responsible to others in exercise of their Powers and Functions. This system is based on the theory of separation of powers as proposed by Montesquieu. The United States of America is a classical example of this system. We also find this system in several Latin American and African countries like Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Congo, Mexico, Peru, Peruguay, Uganda, Zaire, etc.

Prof. Garner defined presidential government as “one in which the executive is constitutionally Independent of Legislature in respect of its duration of tenure and political policies”.

Question 6.
Examine the differences between presidential and parliamentary form of government.

Parliamentary government Presidential government
1. Exists two types of executives; real and nominal No distinction between real and nominal executives or it has one real head
2. Head of the state is nominal and head of the government is real Head of the state is real executive and legislature, both are
3. It is said that there should be co-operation between executive and legislature No coordination and co-operation between independent of each other
4. Tenure of the executive is uncertain Tenure of the executive is fixed
5. Council of ministers is appointed by the head of the state on the advice of the prime minister. Cabinet is the creation of the president
6. Ministers are members of the legislature Ministers of cabinet or secretaries are not the members of the legislature
7. Ministers are responsible to head of the state and collectively to legislature in practice Secretaries are not responsible for the legislature but to head of the state.
8. Equal representation to all sections and regions in administration. No equal representation to all regions and sections of the society.
9. Actions of the executive is scrutinized by the legislature Both legislature and executive are independent of each other and have mutual checks and balances
10. Scope for flexibility to adapt to the changing situations It lacks flexibility. It does not mould itself to changing situations.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 7.
Explain the merits and demerits of presidential form of government.
Merits of Presidential Government:
a) More democratic :
In a presidential form of government, it is said to be more democratic because of two principles of checks and balances. Every decision of executive and legislature checked by the judiciary and they can be interpreted by the judiciary.

b) Stable government :
In presidential system, the president is elected for a fixed tenure. He cannot be removed by ordinary process of law making. There is a special procedure of impeachment in the constitution for the removal of the president.

c) Efficient governance :
The presidential executive can take decisions with energetic promptitude. Power is concentrated in the hands of the executive so it can take decisions and works promptly.

d) Responsibility for Popular :
In a presidential government, real executive is president and he retains its representative character and president is never responsible for legislature and always president is responsible for the people.

e) Independent legislature :
Since the legislature cannot be controlled by the executive it can be more independent. The members of the legislature are not required to adopt the line of the party ideology as it is in a parliamentary system.

Demerits of the Presidential Government:
a) Dictatorial executive :
The presidential executive is likely to be authoritarian. All executive powers are concentrated in the hands of the president and as he is not accountable to legislature, he may be tempted abuse power and behave in a dictatorial manner.

b) Conflict and deadlock :
As the president and his ministers are not members of the legislature, they find it difficult to persuade the members of the latter to accept their proposals. The legislature is inclined to find fault with the president and vice versa. Conflict between the executive and the legislature leads to deadlock in the administration.

c) Absence of accountability :
The executive is not accountable to the legislature, nor it is accountable to the people. The people of the America directly elect their president, they cannot recall him even if they find incompetent or dishonest or useless.

d) No co-ordination between executive and legislature :
In a presidential government, executive and legislature are two distinct bodies and they work indecently, so it is said that, presidential government is lacking co-ordination.

e) Insignificant position of legislature :
In presidential system, legislature became secondary. Executive receives top priority. The president is treated as most capable and influential person in the government.

Question 8.
Write a note on Modem classification of Governments.
In modern times, the Governments have been classified into various forms by different political scientists of a different point of time based on nature of exercise of power. The modem classification of governments broadly consists of two types. 1. Despotic Government, 2. Democratic Governments. Democratic governments are further divided into limited monarchical form of government and republican form of Governments. The Governments are either in the form of unitary or federal based on territorial division of powers and presidential or parliamentary form of Government based on division of powers between the organs of Government.
TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments 1

Despotic Government :
Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power and its other connotations are : tyranny and dictatorship. The despotic ruler rules at his will and pleasure without any concern for public opinion and welfare.

Democratic Government :
Democratic government is a government in which all the people participate in the decision making and it is run as per the aspirations of all the groups. It aims and provided for equality.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Aristotle’s classification of Governments.
Aristotle classified governments on the basis of two elements, namely, i) Number of rulers ii) Aims of the State. He again classified Governments into normal and perverted ‘ forms. He says monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, oligarchy and democracy are the perverted form of Governments.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 2.
Unitary form of Government.
The word ‘Unitary’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and ‘Tary’, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definition :
A.V. Dicey “A Unitary government is the habita] exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Question 3.
Federal Government.
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning :
The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means ‘Treaty of Agreement”.

Question 4.
Presidential Form of government.
A Presidential government is one in which the Executive Powers are exercised by an elected President. His term of office does not depend on the will of the legislature. He is not only the Head of the state but also the head of the government. He is not responsible to the legislature for his actions and policies. This type of government is found in America, Brazil etc.

Question 6.
UnWritten Constitution.
A constitution which is not in the written form is called unwritten constitution. The Rules of the governmental Organisation are in the form of customs, conventions, Traditions and usages. If is not in the form of a written document. It is the product of growth. If is the result of evolution. It is not created by any particular body at any particular period For Example Britain has an unwritten constitution.

Question 7.
Parliamentary Executive.
Parliamentary government is one in which the executive ie.; the council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister owes to the legislature for Its Formation, Continuation, and Survival in office. It is also known as Responsible government, cabinet government, Prime Ministerial government etc., Britain is a classical example of this form of government. Besides many states like Australia, Canada, India, Japan etc. have been following this system.

Question 8.
Separation of powers?
Theory of separation of powers is propounded by Montesquieu in his famous book ‘The Spirit of Laws’. The powers among the three organs of the Government in presidential executive will be distributed on the basis of the theory of separation of powers. Its main feature is ‘Checks and Balance’, which means the three organs of the Government possess equal powers and each organ checks the other two organs from crossing their limits.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 9.
Checks and Balances.
The Principle of checks and Balances is most important feature of presidential government. In presidential system, every organ enjoys autonomy and exercises powers independently. At the same time, every organ acts as a check against the executive authority of the other organs. The legislature must give its consent to all the appointments made by the president. Similarly, the President must give his assent on all the Bills approved by the Legislature. Judiciary reviews all the constitutional cases. It declares the Presidential warrants and Legislative enactments as ‘ultravires’ when the latter are made against the letter and spirit of the constitution.

Question 10.
Collective Responsibilities.
Collective Responsibility is a salient feature of Parliamentary government. The Ministers are collectively Responsible to the lower house of the Legislature. They take policy decisions collectively under the Leadership of the Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers cease to hold office when loses it the confidence of the lower house of the legislature A Minister may express his dissent towards the policy during unforeseen is discussed in the cabinet meeting. But he has to defend and support the cabinet decision. He is also Individually and jointly responsible to the Legislature for Omissions and Commissions made in his department..

Question 11.
No – Confidence Motion.
No – confidence motion is an important power of the Legislature especially in a parliamentary system of government in which the legislature exercises control over the executive for all its decisions over policies, the council of Ministers are directly responsible to the Lok sabha in India and to the House of Commons in Britain where the parliamentary system is in existence. The Lok sabha in India and the House of Commons in Britain can fail the government by passing the direct vote of No – Confidence against the prime minister and his Ministers.

Question 12.
Prime Minister.
Parliamentary government is described as Prime Ministerial government. The Prime Minister in this system acts as the Real executive head of the government. He acts as the Leader of the Majority party or coalition Ministry in the lower house of the legislature. He remains as the main pillar to the structure of union cabinet and union council of Ministers. He is central to the formation, continuance and survival of the Ministry. He Presides over the meetings of the union cabinet and decides its agenda. He enforces the Principle of Collective Responsibility. All the Ministers take oath of office, assume powers and discharge their Public and political obligations under his stewardship.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 12 Forms of Governments

Question 13.
Presidential government confers both the Nominal and Real executive powers in a single person namely the president. So the president is not only a nominal executive but also the Real executive. He serves as both the head of the state and government. He enjoys all executive powers both in name and in practice. He takes Independent decisions keeping in view the popular wishes and national interests. He implements the policies and programmes of the government with the help of some secretaries who owe their existence, continuance and survival to him only.

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