TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 10 Ethics, Values and Thinking

Telangana TSBIEĀ TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material 10th Lesson Ethics, Values and Thinking Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material 10th Lesson Ethics, Values and Thinking

Question 1.
Discuss the importance of Ethics and how values can be inculcated.

  1. Importance : Ethics refers not merely to conformity with values of the society because of fear of retribution, but behaviour in accordance with the societal values because of having internalised them and having accepted them as one’s own.
  2. Ethical behaviour also demands consistency of conduct and belief in a principle.
  3. An individual is ethical if he behaves in accordance with a principle at all times and not just when it suits him.
  4. If the above two conditions were absent, some of the very foundations on which the society is based, such as trust, acceptance and co-operation would crumble.
  5. However, even when a society has a set of clearly defined moral principles, conflict is not necessarily avoided.
  6. This is because ethics develops within specific social frame works and keep changing as societies change.
  7. Thus, two societies are likely to uphold different, even opposing principles are priorities, which can because of conflict between them, even though certain primary ethical values may be almost universal in nature.
  8. When people have good conduct and behave in conformity with the standards of the society, we call it ethical behaviour.
  9. This can neither be taught nor learnt in the way other school subjects are taught.
  10. It develops in individuals as a result of their family background, influence of their peer group and influence of the society in which they live.
  11. The following factors influence the inculcation of values,
    a) Observation
    b) Participation
    c) Discussion
    d) Inspiration from others
    e) Fear of punishment
    f) Serious influence of some incidents or situations.
  12. Thus inculcation of values for the progress and preservation of society is one of the key aims of Education.
  13. Importance of inculcation of ethics or moral development has been echoed time and again by others thinkers, such as John Dewey, who posited that Education was a process of forming ‘Fundamental dispositions’.
  14. Mahatma Gandhi is also quoted in this respect “The purpose of all knowledge is to build up character”.
  15. For any value to be developed, it should be practised with regularity and without lapses.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 10 Ethics, Values and Thinking

Question 2.
Write an essay about the various aspects of Reflective Thinking.
Reflection as a general skill can form part of the learning process. Reflection goes beyond just gaining knowledge, to

  1. Exploring the foundations of that knowledge
  2. Strengthening understanding
  3. Increasing awareness of the values and attitudes that influence it.

Reflective process :
It was developed by Boud, Keogh and Walker. The process has three stages.

  1. Returning to experience – a detailed recounting or recollection of the events.
  2. Attending to the feelings, both positive and negative, that have been prompted by the experience.
  3. Re-evaluating that experience in the light of these stages and the learner’s intent and self-knowledge, bringing in new knowledge that has been gained through the process.

The possible barriers of Reflections might be :

  1. Assumptions about what is/is not possible.
  2. Assumptions about how to learn.
  3. Lack of confidence/self confidence.
  4. Previous experiences.
  5. Low expectations of others and of self.
  6. Inadequate preparation.
  7. Lack of amenable environment.
  8. Lack of space/time.
  9. Tiredness.
  10. Unclear/ambivalent intent.

Reflection requires an approach which is

  1. being tolerant of diversity of ideas – not every one will think the way you do, not everyone interprets or understands the world in the way you do.
  2. being curious – there has to be a willingness to ask questions ,to want to find out.
  3. being patient – just as there are no simple answers, there are no instant answers either and your ideas and understanding may well change over time.
  4. being open – willingness to absorb what is happening.
  5. being honest – you need to be honest with yourself and this includes being honest about doubts and uncertainity.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 10 Ethics, Values and Thinking

Question 3.
Differentiate between Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking.
Critical thinking:

  1. Critical thinking is exercising or involving careful judgement or evaluation.
  2. Ex : Judging the feasibility of an idea or product.
  3. Critical thinking is a very important skill to develop.

Critical thinkers are able to do the following things:

  1. Be open minded about new ideas.
  2. Be intellectually independent.
  3. Know when there is a need for more information about something.
  4. Ask questions.
  5. Base their judgements on evidence.
  6. Look for connections between subjects.
  7. Analyze and understand concepts, information and behaviour.
  8. Break things down and seperate fact from opinion.
  9. Question everything that does not make sense.
  10. Try to avoid common mistakes in reasoning.
  11. Be honest with themselves.
  12. Overcome confusion.
  13. Try to separate emotional thinking from logical thinking. Creative thinking: A working definition of creative thinking is having unusual ideas and innovative thoughts and being able to put things together in new imaginative ways. It is like thinking outside of the box.

Tips to help you to develop your creative thinking skills:

  1. Don’t get hooked on finding the right answer. There can be many right answers in a creative process. It depends on your point of view.
  2. Don’t always be logical. Sometimes we need to look at some-thing in a very different or not so logical way to create a better way.
  3. Break the rules sometimes. New break throughs have happened because of someone not always following the rules.
  4. Be impractical. If we are always practical, we will always see things the same way. Sometime we have to step out what is usual or safe.
  5. Allow yourself to fail. You get better with practice.
  6. Always consider yourself to be creative. This goes to our never saying we cannot do something we need to always try.

TS Inter 1st Year Ethics and Human Values Study Material Chapter 10 Ethics, Values and Thinking

Question 4.
What are some of the topics in your textbook on Ethics that you found interesting and useful? Discuss in brief.
In this text book there are many Interesting topic and useful topics. Now I will discuss the topics unit wise.

Unit-I :
The topics like Good behaviour; character and conduct, Habit, Difference between good and bad are very good and useful to present day youth. The scope of Ethics is also good.

Unit – II :
In this unit constitution and the values embedded in Indian constitution is good.
In this topic Fundamental duties of Indian citizens are explained very clearly.

Unit – III :
This unit is exclusively for students. The importance or NCC and NSS are very clearly given. After reading this the kids will get interest in Bharath scouts and Guides.

Unit – IV :
In this unit Life Skill are really good. After readings this every student will follow how to Manage the time.
Peer pressure, Team work, Interpersonal relations are really Needed by each and every student.

Unit – V :
This chapter is very important for each and every citizen of India.

How to use Natural resource, what is the loss we are getting due to deforestation. How to control unethical practices will be know to each and every person who reads this.

Unit – VI :
This chapter defines what is religion. Differences between different religions. Importance of the religion. Greatiness of all religions is explained.

Unit – VII :
In this unit professional Ethics was discussed. IAS, IPS, officers, Doctors, Politicians etc play very important role in Building the society. If these people are corrupt there will be danger to Nation. Each professional person must go through this.

Unit – VIII :
In this unit Health and Nutrition was discussed. Especially nowadays all youth are doing dieting. After reading this book Every parent must give good and nutrition food to their kids.

Unit – IX :
The advantages, disadvantages of Internet, Mobile Phones, Computers are very clearly discussed in this unit.

Unit – X :
In this topic ethics was once again discussed. Reflective thinking, creative thinking is explained very nicely.

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