TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 16 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Telangana TSBIEĀ TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material 16th Lesson Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material 16th Lesson Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Write an essay on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).
Environmental management is the process of improving the relationship between human beings and the environment through a check on the developmental activities of man and by practising environmental protection, conservation and regulation. A multidisciplinary approach is required for understanding environmental problems and finding solutions.

In India the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) implements environmental policies and programs through Central and State pollution control boards.

Environmental management includes :

  1. Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
  2. Pollution control
  3. Environmental audit (EA).

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 16 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) 1

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. It isa tool to identify possible environmental impacts of developmental ‘ activities. It is designed to predict the impacts of any project on environmental indices and thereby helps in decision making about -the project acceptance.

If the EIA indicates that no significant impact is likely, then the agency can release a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) and carry on with the proposed action. Otherwise, the agency must then conduct a full-scale Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions “significantly affecting the quality of the human environment”. An EIS is a tool for decision making. It describes the positive and negative environmental effects of a proposed action and it usually also lists one or more alternative actions that may be chosen. The statement should use an interdisciplinary approach so that it accurately assesses both the physical and social impacts of the proposed development. It provides documentation of the information related to :

  1. Description of proposed project.
  2. Nature and magnitude of the likely environmental effects
  3. Possibility of natural disasters.
  4. Possible effects on surface and ground water quality, soil and air quality.
  5. Effects on vegetation, wild life and endangered species.
  6. Social environment such as impact on tribes, villagers who reside there.
  7. Risk analysis and disaster management.

A draft EIS is published for public review and comment for a minimum of 45 days. At the end of the period, agencies consider all substantive comments and if necessary, conduct further analyses. A final EIS is then published, which provides responses to substantive comments.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 15 Conservation of Biodiversity

EIA Methodology :

  1. The first step in EIA method is to determine whether the project under consideration follows the jurisdiction of the relevant acts and regulations and if so, whether it is likely, to create a significant environmental disruption.
  2. If so, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is prepared.
  3. EIS is reviewed at public-hearings.
  4. Finally, a decision is taken. The development project may be
    (i) accepted, or
    (ii) accepted with amendments, or
    (iii) an alternative proposal is accepted, or
    (iv) rejected.

The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) Govt, of India issued a Notification in 2006 for all developmental activities falling under sectors such as industries, v mining, irrigation, power and transport etc!, and categorised them as category A and category B projects based on the nature and size of the project.

Category A Projects include all physical infrastructure whose size and cost is greater than certain minimum levels as defined in the Schedule. Environmental Clearances for these projects are granted at the Central level. Physical infrastructure includes projects in ports, highways, water and sanitation, urban transport and solid waste management- sectors.

All new National Highways are classified as Category A. In addition, expansion of National Highways greater than 30 KM, involving additional Right of Way (ROW) greater than 20m, involving land acquisition and passing through more than one State are categorized as Category A.

Category B Covers projects with lesser size or capacity and smaller impacts than Category A. Environmental Clearances for Category B projects are granted at the State level. Each State has a dedicated department or Board, which would grant the Clearance. .

The actual size definitions depend on the sector or project type. For example in the case of ports, projects with handling capacity of more than 5 MTPA (metric tonnes per annum) come under Category A, while those with less than 5 MTPA are Category B.

An important nation wide environmental programme is the Clean India Mission.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) or Swachh Bharat Misson (SBM) or Clean India Mission is a campaign in India and run by Government of India that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India’s cities, smaller towns and rural areas. The objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.

Run by the Government of India, the Mission aims to achieve an Open-Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India. It is India’s largest cleanliness drive to data with 3 million government employees, school students and college students from all parts of India participating in over 4,000 cities, towns and villages.

Swachh Sarvekshan, commissioned by the Ministry of Urban Development is an extensive sanitation survey across several hundred cities to check the progress and impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and to foster a spirit of competition among the cities.
TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 16 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) 2

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