TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 15 Conservation of Biodiversity

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material 15th Lesson Conservation of Biodiversity Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material 15th Lesson Conservation of Biodiversity

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Explain the measures to be taken to conserve Biodiversity.
We read in the earlier chapters about how various human activities are damaging biodiversity. If we do not act immediately to protect biodiversity, life will cease on earth. Conservation of Biodiversity comprises the measures man should take to protect biodiversity and prevent damage to its components. The objective of such conservation is to protect species, their habitats and their ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. The conservation of ecosystems saves large numbers of species which might otherwise, be endangered and also preserves the support systems that maintain life.

Global, national and local efforts are needed to achieve conservation of biodiversity. Conservation can be of two types a) in-situ conservation b) ex-situ conservation.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 15 Conservation of Biodiversity

I. In Situ Conservation :
‘In-situ’ is a Latin phrase which means’ in the original palce or arrangement’. The conservation of species in their natural habitat or natural ecosystem is known as in situ conservation. In this process, the natural surroundings or ecosystems are protected and maintained so that all the constituent species (known or unknown) are conserved and benefited. The factors which are detrimental to the existence of species concerned are eliminated by suitable mechanisms.

There are different types of protected areas and sites of conservation in India, based on the level of protection provided and the amount of human intervention allowed.

Modes of In situ Conservation :
Types :

  1. National Parks
  2. Wild Life Sanctuaries
  3. Conservation and Community Reserves
  4. Marine Protected Areas Sanctuary
  5. Biodiversity Heritage Sites
  6. Biosphere Reserves
  7. Sacred grooves
  8. Ramsar sites.

1) National Parks :
A National park is a protected area aimed at betterment of wild life. There are 103 National parks in India 5 are situated in Telangana. Important national parks in Telangana-(l) Kasu Brahnandareddy National Park (HYD), (2)MahaveerVanasthali (Deer) (HYD), (3) Murgavani National Park (HYD).

2) Wild Life Sanctuaries :
Several forests have been declared as reserve forests and protected. Several lakes where birds migrate have been recognised as birds, sanctuaries. In these areas, natural habitat of birds has been preserved. Poaching of Birds hunting their eggs are prohibited. In India there are 543 wild life sanctuaries. Out of this, 9 are situated in Telangana.

  1. Nagarjuna Sagar – Srisailam Sanctuary.
  2. Etuari Nagaram Sancturary – near Warangal.
  3. Kinnerasani Sanctuary – near Khammam.

3) Conservation and Community Reserves :
Conservation reserves and community reserves in India are terms denoting protected areas of India which typically act as buffer zones to or connectors and migration corridors between established national parks, wild life sanctuaries, protected and reserved forests in India.

Important Community Reserves in India :
Thungabhadra otter Reserves – Karnataka, Jower Tunnel – Jammu and Kashmir.

4) Marine protected areas :
Marine Protected Area (MPA) is essentially a space in the ocean where human activities are more strictly regulated than in the surrounding waters- similar to parks we have on land. These places are given special protection for natural or historic marine resources. There are 25 in peninsular India and 106 in the islands of India.

Some marine protected areas in India are :

  • Coringa Sanctuary near Kakinada, A.P
  • Krishna Sanctuary, near Machilipatnam, A.P

5) Biodiversity Heritage Sites : These are well defined areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems – terrestrial, fresh water or marine, having rich biodiversity and comprising any one or more of the components such as

  • Species richness.
  • High endemism.
  • Rare, endemic (which exist only in one particular region) and threatened species.
  • Keystone species (they play a crucial and unique role in the ecosystem).
  • Species of evolutionary significance.
  • Wild ancestors of domestic /cultivated species or land races or their varieties.
  • Areas of fossil beds having cultural, ethical or aesthetic values. These are important for the maintenance of cultural diversity, with or without a long history of human association with them.

Examples :
Ameenpur lake on the outskirts of Hyderabad. Ameenpur Lake becomes the first Biodiversity Heritage site in the country. Fish and birds return : On the western fringes of Hyderabad is a sprawling and ancient man-made lake.

The lake brims with life :
bar-headed geese, flamingos, pelicans, cormorants, ruddy shelducks, and grey herons, checkered keelback snake and fish. It was because of the biodiversity tag that the government was granted Rs. 3.72 crore to improve the weir, open up inlets and clean up the lake, which has resulted in cleanup and the resultant increase in biodiversity.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 15 Conservation of Biodiversity

6. Biosphere Reserves :
Biosphere reserves or natural reserves are multipurpose protected areas with boundaries circumscribed by legislation. The main aim of a biosphere reserve is to preserve genetic diversity in representative ecosystems by protecting wild animals, traditional life style of inhabitants and domesticated plant/animal genetic resources. These reserves are larger areas of natural habitat than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary, and often include one or more National Parks. Some important biosphere reserves are :

  • Simlipal (Orissa)
  • Sunderbans (West Bengal)
  • Nilgiris (Tamilnadu)
  • Kaziranga (Assam)
  • Gulf of Mannar (Tamilnadu).

7. Sacred Grooves :
A Sacred Grooves or sacred woods are any groove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.

Example :

  • Pavitraskhetralu (dense, well managed plantations on outskirts of village) in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Kovilkadu sacred grove of Tamilnadu.

8. Ramsar Sites :
These are wetlands considered to be of international importance. The international convention which forms the basis for their identification is commonly referred to as the “Ramsar Convention” after the city in Iran where the convention was signed in 1971.

Example :
• Kolleru and Pulikat lakes in Andhra Pradesh.

Haritha Haaram :
Haritha Haaram is a large-scale treeplanting program implemented by the Government of Telangana to increase the amount of tree cover in the state from 24% to 33%. This flagship programme of government of Telangana is aimed at rejuvenating degraded forests, protecting these forests from threats such as smuggling encroachment, fire and grazing. It adopted intensive soil and moisture conservation measures based on a wateished approach in the areas outside the existing forest, massive planting activities were to be taken up in areas such as, roadside avenues, river and canal banks, barren hills, tank bunds and fore shore areas institutional premises, religious places housing colonies, community lands, municipalities and industrial parks.

Vanajeevi (Forester) Ramaiah’ ‘Chettu (Tree) Ramaiah* is a 70 year old man in Reddipalle village, Khammam district, who was awarded Padmasree in 2017. Thanks to the active support of his wife Janamma Mr. Ramaiah spearheaded a tree plantation drive for the past several decades across the district with a thrust on shady trees, fruit bearing and bio-diesel plants with assured environmental and economic benefits to society.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 15 Conservation of Biodiversity

II. Ex-Situ Conservation :
Ex-situ conservation involves maintenance and breeding of endangered plants and animals under partially or wholly controlled conditions in specific areas like zoos, gardens, nurseries etc. It is the conservation of selected plants and animals in selected areas outside their natural habitat.

The stresses on living organisms due to competition for food, water and space can be avoided by ex-situ conservation, thereby providing conditions necessary for secure life and breeding.

Modes of Ex Situ Conservation :

  1. Gene Banks
  2. Seed Banks
  3. Botanical Gardens and Zoos
  4. Field Gene Banks
  5. Microbial Cultural Collection Centres.

1. Gene Banks :
Gene banks are a type of bio-repository which preserve genetic material. For plants, this could be by freezing cuttings from the plant, or stocking the seeds (e.g. in a seedbank). For animals, this is the freezing of sperm and eggs and also embryos in zoological freezers until further need.

2. Seed Banks :
A seed bank preserves dried seeds by storing them at a very low temperature. It the most cost-effective method of providing plant genetic resources for long-term exsitu conservation. The main advantage of seed banking is that it allows large populations to be preserved and genetic erosion to be minimised by providing optimum conditions and reducing the need for regeneration.
Examples :
Navdariya Conservation Farm Uttarakhand, Seed bank at ICRISAT Hyderabad.

3. Botanical Gardens and Zoos :
Botanical gardens and zoos are the most conventional methods of ex-situ conservation, all of which house protected specimens for breeding and reintroduction into the wild when necessary and possible. These facilities provide not only housing and care for specimens of endangered species, but also have an educational value. They inform the public of the threatened status of endangered species and of those factors which cause the threat, with the hope of creating public interest in stopping and reversing thsoe factors which jeopardize a species’ survival in the first place. They are the most publicly visited ex-situ conservation sites.
Example :

  • Nehru Zoological Park, Hyderabad
  • Hyderabad Botanical Garden.

4. Field Gene Banks :
This is a method of planting plants for the conservation of genes. For this purpose, an ecosystem is created artifically. Through this method one can compare the differences among plants of different species and study them in detail. It needs large tracts of land, adequate soil, conductive weather, etc. Germ plasmas of important crops are conserved through this method. 42,000 varieties of rice are conserved in the Central Rice Research Institute in Orissa.

5. Microbial Cultural Collection Centres :
These are organizations which collect, store and distribute standard reference microorganisms, cell lines and other materials for research and development. Culture collections are valuable resources for the sustainable use of microbial diversity and its conservation.
Examples :

  • Microbial Type Culture Collection & Gene Bank (MTCC) – Chandigarh, India.
  • National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCM) – Pune, India.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 15 Conservation of Biodiversity

Question 6.
Write the acts of Biodiversity.
Convention on Biological Diversity :
The Convention on Biodiversity was held at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a comprehensive strategy for “sustainable development”. It establishes three main goals:

  1. the conservation of biological diversity.
  2. the sustainable use of its components.
  3. the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources.

Under the Convention, governments are required to develop. national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and to integrate these into broader national plans for environment and development. This is particularly important for such sectors as forestry, agriculture, fisheries, energy, transportation and urban planning.

The Biological Diversity Act 2002 of India :
The Act covers conservation, use of biological resources and associated knowledge occurring in India for commercial or research purposes or for the purposes of bio – survey and bio-utilisation. It provides a frame work for access to biological resources and sharing the benefits arising out of such access and use.

State biodiversity Boards are statutory and autonomous bodies constituted by the Government. Their main function is to

Advise the State Government subject to any guidelines issued by the Central Government on matters relating to conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of biological resources.

Biodiversity Management Committee :
Every local body shall constitute a Biodiversity Management Committee within its area, which is the best example of taking the practice of science right down to the grass-roots. The roles of BMCs are

  • Promoting conservation of biological diversity.
  • Sustainable use and documentation of biological diversity.
  • Preservation of habitats.
  • Conservation of Landraces (domesticated, locally adapted traditional varieties of a species of animal or plant), folk varieties and cultivars (Plant varieties produced in cultivation by selective breeding), domesticated stocks & breeds of animals and microorganisms.
  • Chronicling of knowledge relating to biodiversity.
  • Facilitating preparation of people’s biodiversity registers (PBRs)

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 15 Conservation of Biodiversity

People’s Biodiversity Register :
It is a document that contains comprehensive information on locally available Bioresources, their medicinal or any other use, or any other traditional knowledge associated with them. This is an innovative decentralized approach to knowing, us,ing and safeguarding our biodiversity and traditional knowledge. This helps in the conservation of biodiversity. It also supports claims of local ownership of biodiversity and traditional knowledge. The PBR process creates a mass awareness and knowledge flow, which is important for biodiversity conservation.

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