TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 9 Global Environmental Issues

Telangana TSBIEĀ TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material 9th Lesson Global Environmental Issues Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material 9th Lesson Global Environmental Issues

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Write an essay on Global Environmental Issues and its protection.
Global Environmental issues :
All across the world, people are facing a plethora of new and challenging environmental problems every day. Some of them are small and affect only a few ecosystems, but others are drastically changing the world as we know it.

Our planet is on the brink of a severe environmental crisis. Current environmental problems make us vulnerable to disasters and tragedies, now as well as in the future. We are in a state of planetary emergency. Unless we address the various issues prudently and seriously, we are doomed to disaster.

Given below are some of the major environmental problems that require urgent attention.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 9 Global Environmental Issues

Major Current Environmental Problems :
i)Pollution :
The ill effects of the pollution of air, water and soil cannot be undone even in a thousand years. Water pollution is caused by oil spill, acid rain and discharge of effluents by industries; air pollution is caused by various gases and toxins released by industries and factories and combustion of fossil fuels; soil pollution is caused mainly by industrial waste that deprives soil of essential nutrients. Pollutants like heavy metals, nitrates and plastic degrade the environment and are a threat to all forms of life.

ii) Global Warming :
Fossil fuel consumption results in emission of greenhouse gases like methane, carbondioxide and nitrous oxide which are responsible for global warming and climate change. Global warming leads to rising temperatures of the oceans and the Earth’s surface, causing melting of polar ice caps, rise in sea levels and also unnatural patterns of precipitation such as flash floods, excessive snow or desertification. Nations throughout the world are taking efforts to shift to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind, biogas and geothermal energy. The cost of installing the infrastructure and maintaining these sources has plummeted in recent years.

iii) Over population :
The population of the planet is reaching unsustainable levels as it faces shortage of resources like water, fuel and food. Population explosion is more pronounced in developing countries. India is expected to become the most populous country in the world in 2022 and by 2030 its population is expected to cross 1.5 billion. Intensive agriculture practised to produce food causes damage to the environment through use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides.

iv) Natural Resources Depletion :
Natural resources occur within the environment in their original and natural form, undisturbed by humanity. They may take centuries or even millions of years to form. While some like air and water are vital for our survival, others like coal and minerals are used for satisfying daily needs. Natural resources are getting consumed much faster than they can be replenished or regenerated. This leads to the degradation of the ecosystems.

v) Waste Disposal :
The over consumption of resources and use of plastics is creating a global crisis of waste disposal. Developed countries are notorious for producing an excessive amount of waste or garbage and dumping their waste in the oceans and in less developed countries. Nuclear waste disposal is associated with tremendous health hazards. Plastic, fast food packaging and cheap electronic wastes threaten the well-being of humans and animals.

vi) Climate Change :
Change in regional climate patterns in many parts of the world is another environmental problem that has assumed deadly proportions during the last few decades. Climate change has various harmful effects including melting of polar ice, change in seasons, occurrence of new diseases, frequent occurrence of floods and changes in the overall weather scenario.

vii) Loss of Biodiversity :
It is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat. Human activity is leading to the extinction of species and habitats and loss of biodiversity. Eco systems, which took millions of years to perfect, are in danger of being destabilised when any species population gets decimated. The population of wild bees is rapidly decreasing, posing a threat to global agriculture. Balance of natural processes like pollination is crucial for the survival of the ecosystem. Similarly, the destruction of coral reefs is endangering marine life.

viii) Deforestation :
Forests are natural sinks of carbon dioxide and produce fresh oxygen. They also help in regulating temperature and rainfall. At present forests cover 30% of the land but every year tree cover equal in area to the country of .Panama is lost due to deforestation. Billions of trees are being cut every year to cater to the needs of the growing polulation. The green cover is decreasing in order to make more land available for residential, industrial and commercial purposes.

ix) Ocean acidification :
oceans is called ocean acidification. It is a recent phenomenon. Human activities have led to massive amounts of carbon dioxide being produced. Oceans absorb nearly 30% of carbon dioxide in the air. The carbondioxide that is absorbed reacts with sea-water and makes it acidic. In the past 200 years alone, ocean water has become 30 percent more acidic-faster than any known change in ocean chemistry in the last 50 million years. Ocean acidification is a threat to marine life, particularly shellfish and plankton.

x) Ozone Layer Depletion :
The ozone layer is an invisible layer-of protection around the planet that protects us from the sun’s harmful rays. Depletion of the crucial ozone layer of the atmosphere is attributed to pollution caused by chloro-fluoro carbons (CFCs). Once these toxic gases reach the upper atmosphere, they cause a hole in the ozone layer, the biggest of which is above the Antarctic. CFCs are banned in many industries and consumer products.

xi) Acid Rain:
It is rain polluted by acid that has been released into the atmosphere from factories and other industrial processes. Acid rain occurs due to the presence of certain pollutants in the atmosphere. Acid rains can be caused due to combustion of fossil fuels or erupting volcanoes or rotting vegetation which release sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere. Acid rain adversely affects human health, wildlife and marine life.

xii) Water Pollution :
Clean drinking water is becoming a rare commodity. Water is becoming an economic and political issue as the human population fights for this resource. Industrial development is filling rivers, seas and oceans with toxic pollutants which are a threat to human health. .

xiii) Urban Sprawl :
Urban sprawl refers to the expansion of population from high density urban areas to low density surrounding areas, often without planning. This results in the spreading of the city over more and more rural land. Urban sprawl results in land degradation, increased traffic, environ-mental issues and health issues. The evergrowing demand for land destroys the natural environment.

xiv) Public Health Issues :
Current environmental problems pose a risk to the health of humans and animals. Dirty water is the biggest health risk of the world. Pollutants in the soil, air and water include toxins, chemicals and disease carrying organisms. They cause respiratory diseases like asthma and cardiac- vascUlar problems. High temperatures encourage the spread of infectious diseases like dengue.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 9 Global Environmental Issues

xv) Genetically Modified Foods (GM foods) :
GM food or bio-engineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have changes introduced into their DNA using methods oi genetic engineering. The technique allows the introduction of new traits into the organism. For instance, foods be engineered to become more resistant to weeds and pests. Texture, flavour and nutrient values can be improved. The first GM food was sold commercially in 1994. It was a type of tomato which had a long shelf life. Genetic modification of food sometimes results in increased toxins and diseases as genes from a plant that cause allergies can get transferred to the target plant.

Genetically modified crops can cause serious environmental problems as an engineered gene may prove toxic to wild life. Sometimes excessive toxins are used to make plants resistant to insects. This can cause resultant organisms to become resistant to antibodies. Bt cotton is the first GM crop to be approved in India and it is being cultivated extensively. Bt bringal and GM mustard are ready for commercial use but approval was withheld because of widespread concerns regarding safety of eating GM foods.

There is an urgent need for a change in our way of living. We have caused immense damage to the environment but, at least we can try to prevent further degradation. Even small measures like judicious use of water, electricity, reduction in the usage of plastic and disposable, items, proper segregation of domestic waste and greater use of public transport can go for a long way in protecting our planet. Governments too should play a more protecting roles in striking a balance between developmental activities, and conservation of the environment. If urgent steps are not taken at the individual and collective level, it will soon be too late to save the planet. By raising awareness in the local community and also within the family about such issues, one can help contribute to a more clean and green environment.

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