TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 4 Factors Affecting Development

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material 4th Lesson Factors Affecting Development Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material 4th Lesson Factors Affecting Development

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Define “Environment and Development”. Describe factors affecting development.
Answer:
‘Environment’ is a broad term and conveys different .meanings in different disciplines. In Natural Sciences, Environment is defined as a system which provides natural surroundings for the existence of organisms (including humans) and which is a prerequisite for their evolution. Abiotic components (e.g. : air, water, sunlight, minerals) and biotic components (e.g. : humans, animals, birds, insects) are the main elements of the environment. They are interlinked individually and collectively in myriad ways.

What is Development?
Development is the process of improving the quality of all human lives in three equally important aspects. These are

  • Raising the standards of living i.e. income and consumption, levels of food, medical services and education through relevant growth processes.
  • Creating conditions conducive to the growth of selfesteem through the establishment of social, political and economic systems and institutions which promote human dignify and respect.
  • Increasing the freedom to choose by enlarging the range of choice variables, e.g. : varieties of goods and services.

Thus, development is not purely an economic phenomenon but rather a multidimensional process involving reorganization and reorientation of the entire economic and social system.

Factors Affecting Development :
1. Physical Factors :
The physical environment and natural geographic features of a region have a direct impact on the kind of development that takes place there. For instance, the type of soil and the fertility of the soil at a place, proximity to rivers, as well as the climate and weather patterns determine whether agriculture is feasible there and, if so, what kind of crops can be grown. Factories are setup in areas which have an abundance of natural resources like wood and water or where there are rich deposits of minerals and ores. Hilly areas which enjoy a salubrious climate are developed as places of tourist interest. Kodaicanal, Ooty and Nainital are popular summer resorts bemuse of their picturesque surroundings and cool climate.
TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 4 Factors Affecting Development

2. Economic Factors :
The economic health of a region and the development that takes place there are inter dependent. If the economy thrives, there is a greater scope for developmental activities. More industries can be set up, infrastructure like roads, schools, hospitals and railway stations can be improved and better facilities are provided to the residents. These developmental activities, in turn, stoke the economy and attract more investment.

In order to attract foreign investments, the Government of India has facilitated the setting up of several Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in various states. Business units that setup establishments in a SEZ are entitled to several incentives and a simplified operating environment. Besides, no license is required for imports.

The figure below shows the Poverty Trap, which is often thought of as a cycle. Low investment in key areas such as infrastructure (roads, rail, telecommunications etc.), education and healthcare can have dire consequences for a population. Populations in countries hovering at low levels of development can become more vulnerable to ill health, as seen with regard to HIV and AIDs in sub-Saharan Africa. This, in turn, reduces the productivity of the workforce. In addition, lack of education leads to a lower quality work force, while poor road networks discourage investors.
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3. Social Factors :
There are many social factors that affect the level of development of a place. It is easier to execute developmental projects in a society that extols hard work and gives recognition to merit. Conversely, lack of social motivation for betterment, unproductive social activities such as war and having to provide for very large families are factors which hinder development. Negative socio-cultural practices such as gambling and drinking, and lack of skills due to poor training and education are other factors which impede development.

India is making rapid strides in many fields but it is still bogged down by various social evils such as the prevalence of the caste system, child labour, illiteracy, gender inequality, superstitions, and religious conflicts. These social ills are stumbling blocks in the path of national development.

The causes and effects of these social ills are given below, along with solutions for their eradication. It is only when these social ills are eradicated that the country can truly develop in all spheres of life.

TS Inter 1st Year Environmental Education Study Material Chapter 4 Factors Affecting Development

Question 2.
Write about Social Evils.
Answer:
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