TS Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

Here students can locate TS Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 2nd Lesson Biological Classification to prepare for their exam.

TS Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 2nd Lesson Biological Classification

→ Biological classification was first done by Aristotle on the basis of simple morphological characters.

→ In Linnaeus time a two kingdom system of classification with Plantae and Animalia was developed that included all plants and animals respectively.

→ R.H. Whittaker proposed a five kingdom classification based on cell structure, thallus organisation, mode of nutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationships.

→ The five kingdoms were named as Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

→ Bacteria are the sole members of the kingdom Monera.

→ Archaebacteria are different type of bacteria as they have a cell wall structure jj which is responsible for their survival in extreme conditions like salty areas (halophiles), hot springs (thermoacidophiles) and marshy areas (methanogens).

→ Bacteria are grouped under four categories based on their shape : the spherical j Coccus, the rod shaped Bacillus, the comma shaped Vibrium, the spiral Spirillum.

TS Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

→ The cyanobacteria or blue green algae are photosynthetic autotrophs i.e., They can prepare their food as they have chlorophyll.

→ Heterotrophic bacteria do not synthesize their own food but depend on other organisms (parasites) or on dead organic matter (saprophytes) for food.

→ The Mycoplasma are the smallest living cells and can survive without oxygen. They do not have cell wall.

→ A number of antibiotics are produced by actinomycetous members especially the genus streptomyces.

→ Kingdom Protista includes all single celled eukaryotes like Chrysophytes, Diano flagellates, Euglenoids, Slime moulds, Protozoans etc.

→ Protozoans form four groups as Amoeboid protozoans, Flagellated protozoans, Ciliated Protozoans and Sporozoans.

→ Kingdom Fungi shows a great diversity in structure and habitat

→ Basing on the morphology of the mycelium, mode of spore formation and fruiting bodies. Fungi is divided into four classes – Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes.

→ Kingdom Plantae includes all eukaryotic chlorophyll containing organisms commonly called plants.

→ Plantae includes Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and

→ Kingdom Animalia is characterised by heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms that are multicellular and their cells lack cell walls.

→ The mode of nutrition in these organisms is holozoic.

→ They reproduce mostly by sexual modes.

TS Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

→ Lichens and some acellular organisms like viruses, viroids and prions are not included in the five kingdom system of classification.

→ Carl Woese proposed six kingdom classification. It includes Bacteria,

→ Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

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