TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 7 Election System in India

Telangana TSBIEĀ TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material 7th Lesson Election System in India Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material 7th Lesson Election System in India

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Describe the composition, powers and Functions of Election Commission of India.
Article 324(1) of the constitution provides the Election Commission to supervise and conduct the elections to parliament, state legislatures, the offices of the President and the Vice President of India.

Composition :
The Election Commission of India consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and two other commissioners. .
Appointment :
The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners are Oppointed by the president of India.

Tenure :
The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners hold office for a period of 6 years or until they attain the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.

Removal :
The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners can be removed by the president on the basis of a resolution passed to that effect by both the House of Parliament with special majority either on the ground of proved misbehavior or in capacity.

Salary and Allowances :
The Chief Election Commissioner and two other commissioners shall receive salary and Allowances which are similar to that of a judge of the supreme court.

Powers and Functions of Election Commission :
The constitution of India in its articles 324 – 328 enumerates the powers and functions of the Election Commission. These Can be mentioned here under.

  1. It prepares all periodically revised electoral rolls .
  2. It makes every effort to ensure that the voters list is free of errors like non-existence of names of registered voters or existence names of that non-eligible or non-existent
  3. It notifies the dates and schedules of election and scrutinizes nomination papers.
  4. During this entire process, the election Commission has the power to take decisions to ensure a free and fair poll.
  5. It Gan postpone or cancel the election in the entire country or a specific state or constituency on the grounds that the atmosphere is vitiated and therefore, a free and fair election may not be possible.
  6. The Commission also implements a model code of contact for parties and candidates. It can order a re-poll in a specific constituency.
  7. It can also order a recount of notes when it feels that the counting process has not been fully
    fair and just.
  8. The Election Commission accords recognition to political parties and allots symbols to each of them.
  9. It advises the President whether elections can be held in a state under president’s rule in order to extend the period of emergency after one year.
  10. It advises the Governor on matters relating to the disqualifications of the members of state legislature.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 7 Election System in India

Question 2.
Explain the features of Indian Political Party System.
Political parties in India can be broadly classified into national political parties and regional political parties. The Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India (Marxist) also known as CPM and National Congress Party are recognized National Parties in India. Likewise, India also has regional political parties like DMK and AIADMK, Akali Dal, National Conference, Telugu Desam Party, YSRCR TRS and money others.

There are no permanent cadre for many of these parties. However, there are certain political parties like CPI, CPM, BJP TDP and others who have a strong cadre base and constantly engage their workers in normal times also.

1. Multiparty System :
For many decades after independence, India became a one party dominant system with Indian National Congress dominating the political system both at the union level and states. However, the political dynamics from 1990s onwards resulted in the emergence of a multiparty system with over 6 strong national political parties and 53 regional political parties.

2. Ideological spectrum :
Indian political parties can be classified into rightist, leftist and centrist based on their ideological position. The Bharatiya Janata party, Shiva Sena and others claim themselves as rightist as these parties bestow importance to culture, traditional symbols, glorified past, Hindustan etc., in their ideology. The communist parties, Forward Bloc and others consider themselves as proper with socialist orientation and hence are known as left parties. All other parties are a combination of all ideologies and are known as centrist parties.

3. Non cadre based and cadre based parties :
Many political parties in India recruit their political workers and other functionaries only during the times of Elections.

4. No internal democracy :
Indian political parties mostly lack internal democracy in their respective political organizations. Barring a few, all the functionaries from the level of grassroots to national level are nominated by the high command.

5. Constant splits and Factionalism:
Indian political parties constantly suffer from splits among leaders. These conflicts and differences of opinion among the leaders also result in the formation of others political parties. Major parties suffer from factionalism and groupism both at national and regional level.

6. Political coalitions :
Many political parties in India prefer to form coalitions with other parties. These coalition energe as pre poll allinaces and post poll alliances.

7. Charismatic leadership :
Many political parties in India depend on the personality factor of their leaders. This is called charismatic leadership. Leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi and others gave strong leadership to the congress Party. Likewise Atal Behari Vajpayee L.K. Advani, Narendra Modi and others provided vibrant leadership to BJR IN the same manner, Kanshiram (BSP), Mulayan Singh Yadav (SP) Lalu Prasad Yadav (RJD), NT Rama Rao (TDP) K. Chandrasekhar Rao (TRS) and others have millions of followers and led their parties to victories.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 7 Election System in India

Question 3.
Examine the characteristics of Anti defection law.
The 52nd Amendment Act (1985) provides for disqualification of public representatives (members of Parliament and state Legislatures) on the grounds of defection from one political party to another. This amendment Act is referred to and popularly known as Anti Defection Law. The Act is further strengthened by 91st Amendment Act of 2003. The constitution that explains the grounds and procedures for disqualification.

1. Disqualification of members belonging to political parties :
An elected member of any political party faces disqualification, if he joins in any other political party. Further, an elected member of parliament or state legislature belonging to any political party becomes disqualified.
a) If the member resigns from the political party; or
b) If the member either votes or abstains from voting on any matter in the house against the directions issued by political party through a whip.

2. Disqualification of Independent Members and Nominated members:
A member elected as independent to the House of Parliament or state Legislature becomes disqualified if he joins any political party after the election.

Likewise a nominated member to Parliament or State Legislature becomes disqualified if he joins any political party after six months of his nomination.

3. Anti defection Law – Exceptions :
If the members elected from a particular political party split from the party or prefer merger with other party, with 2/3 of the strength, provisions of anti defection law cannot be applied. Likewise, if any member is elected as presiding officer of the house (speaker or deputy speaker etc.) the member can voluntarily gives up the membership of the party to protect the dignity and impartiality of the office. In such cases, the law gives an exception to the member and it cannot be a ground for disqualification.

4. Anti defection Law-Not Applicable to Expulsions :
If any political party expels its elected member from the membership of the party, this Act does not disqualify the member for his term.

5. Anti defection law – Authorised Deciding Authority :
The presiding officer of the House (Speaker) becomes the deciding authority with regard to the matters of disqualification based on Anti defection law.

There are various advantages and short comings in Anti defection law. It was aimed to prevent political defections and corruption that lure the members with offices, material benefits and other considerations. It provides stability to the political system and prevents corrupt practices. This Act guards the policy against unprinciple and unethical political defections and strengthens the fabric of parliamentary democracy.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Explain about Central Election Commission.
In India, all elections are conducted under the control and supervision of an Election Commission According to Article 324 of the constitution, The Election Commission shall consist of the Chief Election commissioner and such number of other Election commissioners, if any, as the president may from time to time fix and the appointment of Chief election commissioner and other Election commissioners shall, subject to the provisions, if arty, be made in that behalf by the President’.

Thus, the Election Commission of India is an independent body. The constitution vested the Election Commission the powers to supervise, control and direct all elections in India. Presently, the Central Election Commission consists of a chief Election commissioner and two other Election Commissioners. The chief Election commissioner is the chairman of the Election commission.

He is appointed by the president of India and emainin office during his pleasure. Normally, he is appointed for a period of 6 years. He can resign on his own or can be removed from his position on grounds of misbehaver or incapacity to discharge his constitutional obligations. However, the removal process involves passing of a resolution in each house of Parliament by an absolute majority of not less than two-third members present and voting.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 7 Election System in India

Question 2.
Briefly write about Electoral Reforms in India.
The Electoral Reforms will ensure the free and fair elections in the country. The successful functioning of Indian democracy depends on the electorial reforms.

Some Electoral Reform proposed :

  1. The donation of companies to the political parties should be strtctiy banned.
  2. The accounts of the political parties are to be audited by the Election Commission periodically.
  3. The number of members of the Election Commission shall be raised.
  4. The limit on election expenditure of the candidates must be proper, practical and realistic.
  5. The announcement of new policies, projects and programmes by the party in power during elections should be banned.
  6. The members of the election commission should be appointed by the president president on the advice of the prime minister, leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha and the chief justice of India.
  7. The government should meet the election expenditure of the candidates.
  8. The Election Commission should be authorised to invalidate the election of a candidate, if it was proved that he had used government machinery during elections.
  9. Notification should be issued to the voters and electronic voting machines should be introduced after fool proof arrangements.
  10. The candidate who secure 51 percent of the polled votes shall be declared as winner.

Question 3.
Narrate about Indian National Congress (INC).
The INC was formed in the year 1885 and played a significant ro|e in Indian National Movement. Some historians have a equated the history of Indian National Movement with the history of Indian National Congress. In the post independence period, the congress party emerged as the single dominent party till 1980’s. It was in power at the center for over three decades and was led by charismatic leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Lai Bahadur Sastry and Indira Gandhi as Prime Ministers. The Congress party was also in power in most Indian states in India. During the general elections in 1977, the congress was defeated at the center.

But bounded back to power at the centre and in many of the states in 1980 elections. In the year 1984, the leader of Congress Party and the then Prime Minister SMT. Indira Gandhi was assassinated. In the general elections of 1984 the congress won with a huge majority and Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime Minister. However, during the 1991 election campaign trial Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated. Later a coalition government under the leadership of RV. Narasimha Rao as the strength of the Congress slowly declined coalitions were formed with many parties under united progressive Alliance (UPA). The congress at the center in 2004 and 2009. Election symbol of the congress Party is the hand. The Indian National Congress allowed itself to the ideals of socialism democracy, secularism and unity and integrity of India.

Question 4.
Discuss about Bharatiya Janata party.
BJP was formally launched in February 1980 under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The election symbol of BJP is lotus. The party has strong links with the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh (RSS), a socio-cultural organisation that stands for Hindu Iva ideology. Since, the fomation of the BJFJ it has considerably increased its strength in Lok Sabha and captured power at the central level in 1998, 2014 and 2019 under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Narendra Modi. It has been forming the Government with its coalition, arrangement known as National Democratic Alliance (NDA).

These include SUraksha (security), shchita (clean and transparency), Swadeshi (Encouragement to domestic goods) and Samraksha (welfarism). The BJP believes in cultural nationalism of India. Construction of Ram Temple at Ayodhya, barring of foreign born persons to assume high offices in India. Reservation of 1/3 seats to women in Parliament and many others are part of its manifesto.

Question 5.
What is Model Code of Conduct (MCC)?
Model code of conduct: The Election Commission of India Formulated certain guidelines to be followed by political parties and candidates during the electoral process. These guidlines are known as model code of conduct (MCC). These include, restrictions on the Government laying new projects or welfare programmes, prevention on government bodies undertaking recruitment, resonable restrictions on election campaign, so as to ensure normal public life without any disturbance, refrain from distribution of liquor, prevention of ruling party form using its seat of power for the campaign purposes and so on.

On the polling day all the parties and candidates should co-operate with poll duty officials. Candidates should not display their election symbols near and around the poll booths on the polling day. For the purpose of strict implementation of the model code of conduct, the Election Commission appoints Observers to whom any complaints can be reported or submitted.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What are Electronic Voting machines?
An Electronic voting machine is a simple electronic device used to record votes in place of ballot papers and boxes which were used earlier in conventional voting system. The advantage of the EVM over the traditional ballot paper system are given below.
a) It eliminates the possibility of invalid and doubtful votes.
b) It makes the process of counting of votes much faster that the conventional system.
c) It reduces to a great extent the quantity of paper used, thus saving a large number of trees.
d) It reduces cost printing as only one sheet of ballot papers required for each polling station.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 7 Election System in India

Question 2.
When is National voters Day observed?
The Election Commission of India is established on January 25, 1950. To mark the commissions foundation day, every year January 25 is celebrated as National voters day. The Government decided to celebrate this day to encourage more young voters to enroll and take part in the political process.

Question 3.
Explain the Growing Money Power in Elections.
It is found that money has an increasingly important role in elections. Unaccounted black money is used by some candidates leading to corrupt practices during elections. Large amounts of money spent on campaigning by some candidates deprive other genuine candidates from winning in elections. Infact money is used by some leaders to buy votes, present gifts such as cricket bits, bribe leaders of caste associations and other groups and donate for community assets in particular area.

The Election Commission of India has taken various steps to curl the menace fo money power in elections. It appoints Election Observers and expenditure observers to each parliamentary or assembly constituency to supervise and prevent these malpractices. It is mandatory for all candidates to declare their assets and liabilities before the filling of nomination papers.

Question 4.
Write about Electoral Photo Identity Card (EPIC).
Electoral Photo Identity cards :
The Election Commission of India issues electoral photo identity cards to the voters. The voters must bring this card or any other proof of identity at the time of voting to cast the vote. This system was introduced as a reform measure to prevent bogus voting.

Question 5.
Explain about Communist Party of India (Marxist).
Communist party of India-Marxist (CPM) :
The split in Communist Party of India in 1964 resulted in the formation of Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPM). Within few years of its emergence, the CPM became stronger and important than the CPI. As a predominant party, of the coalition, the CPM established left front governments in Kerala, West Bengal and Tripura. The ideological stand of CPM include the establishment of people’s democracy in India, inclusion of Right to work in the Fundamental rights, Nationalisation of multinational companies protection of trade union rights, land reforms and so on.

Question 6.
Write a brief note on Shiva Sena.
Shiva Sena :
This party was formed by Bal Thackeray in Maharashtra in 1964. Its aim was to preserve and promote Maratha pride. This party also adheres the Hindu Iva ideology and opposed to the appearement policy towards minorities. Presently the leader of shiva sena, Udhav Thackery is conducting the Government in Maharashtra a chief minister. It is also a coalition partner in NDA.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 7 Election System in India

Question 7.
What is psephology?
Different research organisations and Media units conduct opinion surveys during the election process to guage the attitudes of voters on contesting candidates. The study of voting behaviour of voters is called psephology. There are broadly three types of surveys to study the voting behavior of voters-(a) prepoll survey (b) Exit poll survey and (c) Post poll survey. The Election Commission prohibits the publication of results of exit polls till the date of counting of votes.

Question 8.
Write any two committees and commissions on Electoral reforms.
The following important committees and commissions have made note worthy recommendations on electrol reforms in India in the post independence period.

  1. Joint Parliamentary committee (1972).
  2. Tarkemunde committee (1975).
  3. Dinesh Goswarni committee )1990).
  4. Vohra committee (1993).
  5. Indrajit Gupta Committtee (1998).
  6. Law comission Report (1999).
  7. National commission to review the working of the constitution (2001).
  8. Election Commission of India (2004).
  9. Second Administrative Reforms Commission (2008).
  10. Association for Democracy report on reforms (2013).

Question 9.
What are poll surveys?
Different Research Organisations and print and Electronic Media units conduct opinion surveys during the election process to assets the pulse of voters on contesting candidates especially on the performance of ruling and opposition parties. There are broadly three types of surveys to study the voting behaviour of voters.

  1. Pre poll survey
  2. Exit poll survey, and
  3. Post poll survey

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Study Material Chapter 7 Election System in India

Question 10.
Write a note on Bahujan Samaj Party.
Bahujan Samaj Party :
The Bahujan Samaj Party champions the cause of Backward classes. Scheduled castes, scheduled Tribes, and minorities. The party aims at uplifting the Dalits and downtrodden sections of society. The BSP was formed in 1985 by Kanshi Ram, later, the leadership changed into the hands of another leader Mayavati. The party has significant influence in states like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Delhi. The BSP has also formed a government in Uttar Pradesh and was a coalition partner in the central government many times. The election symbol of BSP is an elephant.

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