## TS Inter 2nd Year English Reading Understanding Non-verbal Data

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 2nd Year English Study Material Reading Understanding Non-verbal Data Exercise Questions and Answers.

## TS Inter 2nd Year English Reading Understanding Non-verbal Data

Q.No.9 (4 out of 6 Questions: 4 × 1 = 4 Marks)

Information is sometimes presented in a non-verbal way as the method has many advantages. It is very important for a student to develop the skill of understanding various types of non-verbal information. Asking questions based on a table, pie-chart etc., is one way to help the student improve this skill: One has to keenly study the text and the questions given after it before attempting to answer the questions.

PIE CHARTS

Study the following pie charts and answer the questions that follow.
1.

i) How many segments are given in the pie chart ?
ii) What percentage of students just passed as shown in the chart ?
iii) What percentage of students got merit ?
iv) What is the total pass percentage of students?
v) What percentage of students got distinction?
vi) What is the combined percentage of students who just passed and who got merit?
vii) When compared, the number of students who passed with distinction are more than those passed with merit. Write true or false.
viii) If the total number of undergraduates appeared for the final year examination is 100, then how many students failed as per the chart?
i) four
ii) 38
iii) 31
iv) 88
v) 19
vi) 69
vii) false
viii) 12

2.

i) What does the pie chart show?
ii) How many hobbies are presented in the pie chart?
iii) Which is the most preferred hobby?
iv) People with the hobbies of ___________ and __________ are almost equal to those with reading hobby. (Fill in the blanks.)
v) 30 percent of the people like dancing. Write true or false.
vi) Which is the least preferred hobby?
vii) People who have the hobby of cooking are 18%. Write true or false.
viii) If people who like cooking also liked dancing, then what would be’ the percentage of people who like dancing?
i) hobbies of people
ii) four
iv) cooking – dancing
v) false
vi) cooking
vii) true
viii) 41

3.

i) What does the pie chart show ?
ii) How many categories are presented in the pie chart
iii) What portion of the total cost is spent on cement ?
iv) What portion of the total cost is spent on bricks ?
v) If the owner himself had supervised the construction of the house, what percentage of amount would he have saved?
vi) The cost spent on timber is 10%. Write true or false.
vii) If the cost of steel were lower than timber and the engineer had decided to use steel instead of timber, would the cost of entire house go down or go up ?
viii) What percentage of the cost is spent on supervision?
i) Cost components of construction of a house
ii) 6
iii) 20%
iv) 15%
v) 15
vi) true
vii) go down
viii) 15

Bar Graphs

Study the following bar graphs and answer the questions that follow.
1.

i) What does the bar graph present ?
ii) Which is the least populated city ?
iii) The population of Hyderabad is ____________. (Fill in the blank.)
iv) Which city has the highest population?
v) Name the cities with a population of two crores or above.
vi) How many cities are presented in the bar graph?
vii) The population of Mumbai is ____________. (Fill in the blank.)
viii) The population of Bangalore is 1 crore. Write true or false
i) Population of cities in India
ii) Pune
iii) 2.0 crore
iv) Delhi
vi) 5 (five)
vii) 3.0 crore
viii) false

2.

i) What does the bar graph present?
ii) In which month did Gita save the highest amount?
iii) During which two months did Gita save very low amounts ?
iv) How much did Gita save in the month of May?
v) How much did she save in the month of April ?
vi) How much more did she save in April than in March ?
vii) How much money did Gita save in the month of March ?
viii) In the month of May, Gita saved Rs 300. Write true or false
i) Gita’s savings (in 5 months)
ii) February
iii) January and March
iv) Rs. 2900
v) Rs. 3900
vi) Rs. 3000
vii) Rs. 900
viii) false

3.

i) What does the bar graph depict?
ii) How many modes of transport are mentioned in the bar graph?
iii) Which is the most preferred mode of transport in the US ?
iv) What percentage of people preferred bicycles in France?
v) In Italy which is the least preferred mode of transport?
vi) What percentage of people preferred motorcycle in the UK?
vii) Four modes of transport preferences are presented in the graph. Write true or false.
viii) What percentage of people preferred car in France?
i) Transport preferences among young people
ii) three
iii) car
iv) 45%
v) motorcycle
vi) 10 percent
vii) false
viii) 40%

Tree Diagrams

Study the following bar graphs and answer the questions that follow.

1.

i) What does the tree diagram describe? –
ii) How many main branches of literature are given in the diagram?
iii) In which branch of literature can one find imaginative aspect?
iv) Name anyone class of drama.
v) Which branch of literature stands close to life?
vi) Mention the number of classes novels are divided into here
vii) Historical approach can be seen ‘in novels. Write true or false.
viii) Regional approach can be seen in _____________. (Fill in the blank.)
i) branches of literature
ii) (4) four
iii) in poetry
iv) comedy or tragedy
v) short stories
vi) five (5)
vii) true
viii) novels

2.

i) What does the tree diagram describe?
ii) How many main types of diseases are shown in the diagram?
iii) Mention the reason for obesity.
iv) Name the medium of infection for typhoid.
v) Stress is caused by ____________ (Fill in the blank.)
vi) The medium of infection for influenza is ____________ (Fill in the blank.)
vii) Hypertension is caused by _____________ (Fill in the blank.)
viii) Three broad types of diseases are mentioned in the diagram. Write true or false.
i) types of diseases
ii) two (2)
iii) faulty eating habits
iv) water
v) faulty living habits
vi) air
vii) faulty living habits
viii) false

3.

i) What does the tree diagram describe?
ii) How many types of vitamins are mentioned in the diagram?
iii) Mention anyone source of vitamin A.
iv) Which vitamin does meat provide us ?
v) From which food do we get vitamin C ?
vi) Sunlight helps us get _______________ (Fill in the blank.)
vii) Eggs are rich in vitamins ___________ and _____________ (Fill in the blanks.)
viii) Which vitamin do we get from milk?
i) types of vitamins
ii) four (4)
iii) milk or eggs
iv) vitamin B
v) fruits and vegetables
vi) vitamin D
vii) A and B
viii) vitamin A

Tables

1. Information of Sports

 Sports Number of players of a Team in Field at a Time Length of Field or Court Shape of Projectile Surface of Field or Court Base Ball 9 27.4m sphere grass Basket Ball 5 28.6m sphere wood Cricket 11 137-l50m sphere grass Curling 4 46m Flattened sphere ice Ice Hockey 11 61m cylinder ice Larcosse 10 101m sphere grass Rugby 15 144m ovoid grass US Football 11 110m Pointed ovoid grass

i) What does the table show?
ii) How many sports are represented on this table?
iii) Of these sports, which has the highest number of players on the field?
iv) Which of these sports is played on a wooden surface?
v) How many of these sports have 11 players on the field at a time?
vi) Which of these sports is played with a cylindrical projectile?
vii) How many of these sports are played on ice ?
viii) Of these sports, which one has the fewest players on the field at a time?
i) Information of sports
ii) eight (8)
iii) Rugby (football)
v) three (3)
vi) Ice Hockey
vii) two (2)
viii) Curling

2.

 Continent Area Number of Countries Population Africa ll,608,000sq.km 54 1,373,486,472 Antartica 5,100,000 sq.km 0 0 Asia 17,212,000 sq.km 48 4,679,660,580 Australia and Oceania 2,968,000 sq.km 14 43,219,954 Europe 8,370,000 sq.km 43 747,747,396 North America 9,365,000 sq.km 23 596,591,592 South America 6,880,000 sq.km 12 434,260,138

i) What does the table’ show ?
ii) How many continents are mentioned in the table?.
iii) Which continent has the largest area ?
iv) Which continent has the smallest number of countries?
v) Which is the most populous continent?
vi) Africa has the highest number of countries. Write true or false.
vii) How many countries does North America have?
viii) Which continent has the smallest area?
i) Continents, their area, number of countries and their population
ii) Seven (7)
iii) Asia
iv) South America (of course, Antartica has not countries)
v) Asia
vi) true
vii) 23
viii) Australia and Oceania

3.

 S.No. Name of the winner Field Year 01. Rabindranath Tagore Literature 1913 02. C.V. Raman Physics 1930 03. Har Gobind Khorana Medicine 1968 04. Mother Teresa Peace 1979 05. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Physics 1983 06. Amartya Sen Economics 1998 07. Venkataraman Ramakrishnan Chemistry 2009 08. Kailash Satyarthi Peace 2014 09. Abhijit Banerjee Economics 2019

i) What does the table show?
ii) How many Indians have received the Nobel Prize to date?
iii) Who is the first Indian to receive the Nobel Prize?
iv) Mother Teresa received the Nobel Prize for ____________ (Fill in the blank.)
v) How many Indians have received the Nobel Prize for Economics till now?
vi) In which year did C V Raman receive the Nobel Prize?
vii) Who won the Nobel Prize in the year 2014?
viii) In the field of Medicine, who won the Nobel Prize for India?
i) Indian Nobel Prize winners
ii) nine (9)
iii) Rabindranath Tagore
iv) Peace
v) two (2)
vi) 1930
vii) Kailash Satyarthi
viii) Har Gobind Khorana

Flow Charts

Study the following bar graphs and answer the questions that follow.

1.

i) What does the flow chart show?
ii) How many steps are given in the flow chart?
iii) What should the customer do after completing the application for account opening?
iv) Who verifies certificates and information of the customer?
v) Where does the customer need to sign ?
vi) What does the bank issue at last?
vii) What step comes before issuing the deposit certificate to the customer?
viii) What does the bank open for the customer?
i) the process of opening a bank account
ii) five (5)
iii) Submit it along with identity certificate
iv) the bank (persons)
v) on the deposit slip
vi) balance receipt passbook
vii) Customer signs on the deposit slip
viii) an account

2.

i) What does the flow chart describe ?
ii) How many steps are given in the flow chart ?
iii) After starting, what should be done ?
iv) When can one start answering ?
v) When can one submit a test paper ?
vi) Where can one select the question type and test range ?
vii) When can one enter the student homepage ?
viii) If one enters the wrong user name, what should be done ?
i) the process of taking an online examination
ii) ten (10)
iii) enter the user name and password
iv) after getting the test questions
vi) on the student homepage
vii) after entering user name and password correctly
viii) should reenter it

3.
How to get driving licence

i) What does the flow chart describe?
ii) How many steps are given in the flow chart?
iii) What test should one pass to go for a written test?
iv) What happens when one doesn’t pass the eyesight test?
v) What should one do after clearing the eyesight test?
vi) What happens when one fails the written exam?
vii) What happens when one clears the written exam?
viii) What can the applicant do after practising driving?
i) the process of getting a Driving License
ii) eight (8) [if fails nine (9]
iii) eyesight test
iv) loses the chance to get a driving license
v) take theoretical lessons and written test
vi) retake the written test
vii) practises driving

Q.No.8 (4 out of 6 Questions: 4 × 1 = 4 Marks)

Advertisements form a considerable component of modern mass-media. Understanding them properly is, therefore, of a great use, particularly for students. An effective approach to understand advertisements is to try to answer questions based on them. Studying carefully the given advertisement as well as the questions is the basic requirement. Keen observation of every part of the advertisement is very much necessary. Practice helps one acquire the needed expertise to answer all the questions correctly.

EXERCISES

iii) When is the International Women’s Day celebrated?
iv) Gender Equality is for a _____________ Fill in the blank.
vi) What does the girl mean by the announcement on the placard she is holding?
i) Gender Equality – its importance
ii) UN WOMEN organisation
iii) on March 08 every year
iv) better society
v) an education, employment, economic strength, empowerment
vi) She means that she IS INDEPENDENT – HER OWN SELF.
vii) any woman (representmg all women)
viii) equality

i) How many books does the college library have?
iv) How do people normally judge a book?
v) When is the International Book Day celebrated?
vi) Expand N-LIST.
viii) What is the motto of N-LIST ?
i) ten thousand books
ii) Books inform, delight, enrich.
iv) by its cover
v) on April 23 every year (remembering Shakespeare – April 23 is his birth and death anniversary)
vi) National library and Information Services
vii) It describes the importance of Books and the need to read them.
viii) Take a book a day Don’t delay (Make reading a regular habit.)

i) What is the causative agent of COVID-19?
iii) List any two symptoms that should not be ignored.
iv) Write any two COVID-19 preventive measures.
vi) Write the word used in the advertisement to mean “the feeling of vomiting”.
vii) What is the COVID-19 guideline for social distancing?
viii) COVID-19 is caused by virus. Write true or false.
i) SARS-CoV-2 virus
ii) ICMR
iii) fever, cough, loss of smell or taste sore throat
iv) wear mask, maintain physical distance (from others), wash hands regularly.
v) ArogyaSetu
vi) nausea
vii) maintaining 6 feet distance from others
viii) true

i) What is Telangana’s first world heritage site?
ii) How many world heritage sites exist in India?
iii) Name the tribal festival held at Mulugu.
iv) What IS the tourist site in Jayashankar Bhupalpally ?
v) What is Pillalamarri renowned for?
vi) State the town in which the thousand-pillar temple is situated.
vii) Golconda fort is situated in Hyderabad. Write true or false.
i) Ramappa temple
ii) forty (40)
iii) Sammakka Sarakka
iv) Mutyala Dhara waterfalls
v) for 700-year-old banyan tree
vi) Warangal
vii) true
viii) Telangana’s Glory

ii) Who can get Aadhar ?
iii) Identify two benefits of Aadhaar.
iv) How much money is required for Aadhaar enrollment?
vi) What does the girl in the ad say to the reader?
vii) How many digits do we find in Aadhaar number?
viii) Aadhaar enrollment can be done anywhere in India. Write true or false.
i) AADHAAR is a 12-digit Unique Identification Number (issued by the government of India).
ii) all citizens of India
iii) valid all over India as a proof of identity and address – can get services like opening bank accounts
iv) no money – It is free.
v) Unique Identification Authority of India
vi) She says she has her Aadhaar Number and she can tell us about it.
vii) 12 digits
viii) true

iii) What should you use for safe driving?
iv) Name the two things to avoid while driving.
v) What is the symbol given for pedestrians?
vi) Expand RTA
vii) What is the motto of RTA?
viii) While driving, one needs to maintain the speed limit. Write true or false.
i) Road Transport Authority of Telangana
ii) It describes ‘Road Safety – Saving Lives’.
iii) seat belts and helmets
iv) Drinking and Racing (over speeding) should be avoided.
v) Zebra lines
vii) Safety First
viii) true

## TS Inter 2nd Year English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 2nd Year English Study Material Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages Exercise Questions and Answers.

## TS Inter 2nd Year English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Q.No.7 (4 out of 6 Questions: 4 × 1 = 4 Marks)

1. Statues Dance Here!

The title sounds strange but the people who visit ‘the Ramappa Temple and see the statues there can feel the Monumental Dance and affirm that it is not an exaggeration. The temple is located at Palampet, a village 70 km from Warangal in Telangana. The ‘ presiding deity is Lord RamaUngesbwara Swamy but it is named after the sculptor, Ramappa who gave the structural form to the dance patterns recorded in the book Nritya Rathnavali, written by Jayapa Senani, a military commander.

Built by Kakathi Ganapathi Deva in 1213 AD, it features construction techniques unique to the Kakatiya dynasty i.e., Sand Box technique, Granite Beams and Pillars, Vimana Gopuram etc. On 25th July 2021, ‘ the temple, the first from the Telugu states, was recognised by the UNESCO.as a World Heritage Site. With this recognition its majesty and grandeur have become known worldwide, a moment of pride for all Telugu people

i) Where is the Ramappa Temple located?
ii) Under whose reign was the temple built?
iii) What is the book Nritya Rathnavali about? Who wrote this?
iv) What was Jayapa Senani ?
v) What are the unique features involved in the construction of Ramappa temple?
vi) How was the temple recognised by the UNESCO?
vii) It is one of the World Heritage Sites from the Telugu states. Write true or false.
viii) Find the word. From the passage that means god.
i) at Palampet
ii) Kakathi Ganapathi Deva
iii) about dance forms; Jayapa Senani
iv) a military commander
v) Sand Box technique, Granite Beams and Pillars, Vimana Gopuram, etc.
vi) as a World Heritage Site
vii) false
viii) ‘deity’

2. Raja Bahadur Venkata Rama Reddy

Members from royal families serving the society is a welcome gesture. But it becomes better when persons with humble beginnings play historic roles. To the latter category belongs. Raja Bahadur Venkata Rama Reddy. Born in 1869 to Baramma and Keshav Reddy in Rayanipet, in Wanaparthy Samsthan, he had a miserable childhood. . He lost his mother, father and his guardian maternal uncle when he was still a boy. He could manage only elementary education.

Yet, he improved his competencies in different languages, law and administration. He started his career as an Amin (Police Sub Inspector). With sheer.perseverance and Intelligent work. He acquired the highly influential post of Kothwal (Commissioner) of Hyderabad city and served people. Pleased with his administrative capabilities, the Nizam conferred on him the title of Raja Bahadur in 1930. Even King George V (pronounced as King George the Fifth) was impressed by his skills and conferred him the title Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.) in 1931. Though busy with nis of dal engagements, he pledged his power to accelerate social awakening.

Prominent among his contributions in social service are: the establishment of the Reddy Hostel, First Telugu Medium School for Girls [Today, this school has been upgraded as a college and it is one of the oldest colleges for women and has recently been accorded the autonomous status.] and Reddy Girls’ Hostel. He tried his best to promote Hindu- Muslim Unity. For the services he rendered as a civil servant, his fame in Telugu States would last forever.

i) Which category of persons does Venkata Rama Reddy belong to? (Don’t say the latter category.)
ii) Who looked after Venkata Rama Reddy after his parents died?
iii) Why did Venkata Rama Reddy have just elementary education?
iv) Name the disciplines Venkata Rama Reddy improved his competence in.
v) How did Venkata Rama Reddy use his highly influential post of Kothwal?
vi) What are the titles that were conferred on Venkata Rama Reddy?
vii) Analyse the word miserable into its root and suffix as child (root) + hood (suffix) = childhood.
viii) Mother’s brother is maternal uncle. Then, what do you call your father’s brother? (Don’t say just uncle.)
i) to the category of persons with humble beginnings playing historic roles in social service
ii) his maternal uncle
iii) as his parents and guardian died while he was still a boy
iv) different languages, law and administration
v) to serve people
vi) Raja Bahadur, Order of the British Empire (OBE)
vii) misery (root) + able (suffix)
viii) paternal uncle

3. Gumuduru Inscription

Inscriptions are writings on hard surfaces like stones or metals. In olden days, kings used to record important information in the form of inscriptions. One such inscription of Tribhuvana-malla Vikramaditya VI (1076-1127 AD) of Western Chalukya Kings at -Guduru of Palakurthy Mandal, Jangaon District bears a date in the cyclic year Krodhin, equated with the 49th year 1124 AD. The script on the inscription has the poetic stanzas in Kannada on three sides and in Telugu on the fourth side.

It gives a genealogical account of the Chiefs of the Viriyala Family. It also records the endowment of the village Bammera, the birth place of Pothana, by Viriyala Malla. Pothana [1450-1510], a great scholar of Telugu and Sanskrit, rendered Sri Andhra Maha Bhagavatham into Telugu. Palakurthy, the Mandal head- quarter, is also famous as the birth place of Palkuriki Somanatha, one of the most popular Telugu poets of the 13th century.

i) What are inscriptions?
ii) Where is the inscription mentioned in the passage located?
iii) How many languages do we find on this inscription?
iv) To-which dynasty did the King Tribhuvanamalla belong?
v) Write, from the passage, a philanthropic activity of Viriyala Malla?
vi) Who are the important literary figures associated with the region?
vii) Find the word from the passage which means a person with a deep knowledge of an academic subject.
viii) Write the part of speech of the word chiefs.
i) writings on hard surfaces like stones or metals
ii) at Guduru of Palakurthy Mandai, Jangaon District
iii) two languages. (Kannada ; Telugu)
iv) Western Chalukya Kings
v) endowment of the village Bammera
vi) Bammera Pothana and Palkuriki Somanatha
vii) ‘scholar’
viii) noun (plural)

4. One Temple – Many Styles – True Spirit of Telangana

Temples are usually houses of worship. Yet, they have been serving multiple purposes since civilizations began to evolve. But, the recently-reconstructed Shri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple atop Yadagirigutta stands out with a unique feature. It blends in a distinct design several temple architectural styles of the times of the Pallavas Cholas, Nayakas, Vijayanagara Kings, Kakatiyas and the Nagara pattern of north India. This miraculously carver artistic wonder has used 2.5 lakh tons of black granite (Krishna: black+sila (stone). And no stone was left unturned to bring in both beauty and utility of the highest degree. The Nagara-styled, barrel-vaulted roof for devotee queue was made of aluminium casting alloy.

Lion pillars, hundreds carved elephants, high walls, specialised gopurams, imposing linear vimanam, huge prakarams, mythical yalis (part horse part lion and part elephant) are among the majestic features of this temple. The impact of the Brihadiswara Temple of Tanjavur, the Lord Balaji’s Temple at Thirumala and the Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Ahobilam on this modern marvel is conspicuous. The structure of the temple became a reality because of the present Chief Minister Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao. This magnificent monument is bound to lend a rich spiritual experience to the faithful and (feast to the connoisseur! (/kmp’s3r/))

i) What makes Shri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple atop Yadagirigutta stand out among many temples?
ii) Name the architectural styles that have been followed if designing this temple.
iii) Where is the Nagara pattern of north India used in the temple:
iv) Mention some majestic features of this modern marvel.
v) Write the idiom that is used in this passage which means tried every possible course of action to achieve the desired result.
vi) What is the one-word substitute you find in the passage that means a specialist in . matters involving judgement, appreciation etc. of fine arts etc. .
vii) Rewrite the following sentence using punctuation marks. but the recently reconstructed shri lakshminarasimha swamy temple atop yadagirigutta stands out with a unique feature
viii) Write the synonym of multiple from the passage.
i) Its blending of several temple architectural styles into one design makes this temple unique.
ii) the styles of the times of the Pallavas, .Cholas, Nayakas, Vij ayanagara Kings, Kakatiyas and the Nagara pattern of north India
iii) in the roof for devotee queue
iv) lion pillars, carved -elephants, high’ walls, specialised gopurams, imposing linear- vimanam, huge prakarams, mythical yalis etc.
v) no stone was left unturned
vi) connoisseur
vii) But, the recently-reconstructed Shri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple atop Yadagirigutta stands out with a unique feature.
viii) several

Technology that is used in ISRO and NASA defence applications shines here atop the towers (gopurams) of Shri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple. The recently- reconstructed temple at Yadagirigutta has many unique features to its credit. One among them is the use of Nano Tech Gold Deposition (NTGD) technology. It went Into the electroplating of gold onto the fifty-two intricately-designed Kalasams that adorn the gopurams. It replaced the conventional gold coating.

It all began when the steely- nerved and iron-willed Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao wanted the gold’s lustre to last for fifty years. Gold-coated objects shine just for fifteen years. Things moved fast to materialise the big dream. The Chennai-based Smart Creations was assigned with the job. They studied various technologies adopted in temples, masjids and, other religious places around the globe. Finally, they chose this NTGD Technology. This method consumes less gold. The gold is hundred percent recoverable. And the’. glitter withstands the vagaries of weather and shines for decades! Sculptural innovations add value to the spiritual experience of the pilgrims who visit this hill temple!

i) Name the technology used to electroplate gold onto the ‘Kalasams’ of the hill temple.
ii) Who took up the job of electroplating the Kalasams with gold?
iii) How long does the glitter last In conventional gold coating?
iv) Write the three advantages of using NTGD technology.
v) What does the expression the big dream refer to ?
vi) Write the synonym of the word lustre that you find in the passage.
vii) Name the presiding deity of this hill temple.
viii) Write the part of speech of the word unique.
i) Nano Tech Gold Deposition (NTGD)
ii) the Chennai-based Smart Creations
iii) for fifteen years
iv) a) consumes less gold b) hundred percent recoverable gold c) shine lasts for decades
v) gold’s lustre lasting for fifty years
vi) glitter
vii) Shri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy

6. World Peace- A Noble Goal

“A combination of science and spirituality would bring peace to the world,” said Swami Vivekananda. With full faith in this dictum, MIT World Peace University, Pune has been organising annual editions of the World Parliament of Science, Religion and Philosophy. The unification of science, religion and philosophy is for the well-being of mankind, assert the organisers.

On the eve of the inauguration of the three-day 8th edition of the World Parliament on April 3, 2022, MIT WPU, along with MIT Art, Design and Technology, celebrated the public dedication programme of the World’s biggest Peace Dome (Certified by the World Book of Records, London). This Dome is regarded as a spiritually oriented scientific laboratory, showing the pathway of happiness, contentment and peace to the world.

On this occasion, they distributed 1.25 lakh copies of the Shrimad Bhagavad Gila. Many believe the Gita as the Book of Life for entire humanity. Yet others consider it as the panacea. Prominent public persons, theologians of every major faith, philosophers, scientists etc. participate in the annual editions of this World Parliament of Science, Religion and Philosophy.

i) What is capable of bringing peace to the world, according to Swami Vivekananda ?
ii) Name the two other activities the organisers of the World Parliament of Science, Religion and Philosophy took up on April 3, 2022.
iii) How is the World’s biggest Peace Dome regarded?
iv) How often do the organisers conduct the World Parliament of Science, Religion and Philosophy?
v) Who can participate in the World Parliament of Science, Religion and Philosophy?
vi) Write the one-word substitute used in the passage that can replace persons who study religion and beliefs.
vii) Find out the one-word substitute used in the passage to mean something that will solve all the problems of a particular situation.
viii) _____________ theologians of every major faith _____________
The meaning of faith as used here is _____________. Fill in the blank choosing from…
a) trust b) a particular religion c) belief
i) a combination of science and spirituality
ii) public dedication programme of the world’s biggest Peace Dome and distribution of 1.25 lakh copies of the Gita
iii) a spiritually oriental scientific laboratory
iv) once a year (annually)
v) prominent public persons, theologians, philosophers, scientists, etc.
vi) theologians
vii) panacea
viii) a particular religion

7. An Epitome of EQUALITY

“ Ramanuja’s heart was greater: He felt for the . downtrodden… asserted Swami Vivekananda. And Gosti Purna called Ramanujacharya Emperumanar (/emberu- ma:nar /- a Dravida word meaning superior to all of us). What made them describe Bhagavad Ramanujacharya thus? How noble Ramanujacharya must be to invite such appreciation! Yes, indeed He was! Regarded as a heavenly star descended down, he grew to be not only a spiritual giant but also an amazing social reformer.

He saw divinity in living and inanimate beings. As an epitome of EQUALITY, He threw himself heart and soul into eliminating all barriers. He defied the then rigid customs. He allowed even the downtrodden into temples and to partake in temple services. For that, He revamped the temple administration thoroughly. He was eager to learn from anyone and at any cost. With unmatching perseverance, He walked 100 KMs to Gosti Pura eighteen times to receive the ‘esoteric’ mantra.

He was equally committed to teach all. And, He revealed that secret ‘mantra’. to everyone. He affirmed that hell would be fine for Him, if everyone got liberation. How supreme His sacrifice was! This legendary incarnation of learner, teacher and reformer (three- ill-one) finds an astounding embodiment of His image and teachings as the gigantic 216-foot golden- hued STATUE OF EQUALITY – courtesy the vision and commitment of His Holiness Tridandi Chinna Srlmannarayana Ramanuja Jeeyar! Shall we, then, assimilate the message? Follow it. Stay blessed. (216 words: 216-foot statue)

i) How did Swami Vivekananda support his claim that Ramanuja’s heart was greater?
ii) Quote the sentence from the passage that proves that Ramanujacharya was eager to learn at any cost.
iii) Why did Ramanujacharya say that hell would be fine for Him?
iv) What did Ramanujacharya do to permit all to offer services in temples?
v) Write the synonym of the word embodiment Find it In the passage.
vi) Pick out the idiom from the passage that means with a lot of energy and enthusiasm.
vii) What is the antonym of living that you find in the passage?
viii) The STATUE OF EQUALITY seeks to inspire us to submit ourselves to the service of our
Acharya ____________ to society and the Supreme Being.
Fill in the blanks with a correlative conjunction, choosing from the options given below.
a) neither ………………nor
b) both …………….. and
c) either ……………….or
d) not only …………….. but also
i) by emphasising the fact that Ramanuja felt for the downtrodden
ii) He walked 100 kms to Gosti Pura eighteen times to receive the ‘esoteric’ mantra.
iii) He said that hell would be fine for Him (for revealing the esoteric mantra to all) if everyone got liberation.
iv) He revamped the temple administration thoroughly.
v) incarnation (epitome)
vi) heart and soul
vii) inanimate
viii) b) both …….and
d) not only but also (Both are right.)

8. God Sees All

The story of the Babylonian King, Belshazzar from the Bible offers us valuable lessons. Once he hosted a grand feast. He ordered his servants to serve wine in golden goblets brought from the temple of Jerusalem. That was sheer blasphemy. Fingers of a hand appeared all of a sudden. They wrote something on the wall. The King was frightened. But he didn’t understand what it was. On the Queen’s advice, the wise Daniel was summoned. He read the message. He said that power corrupted his father Nebuchadnezzar, But he learnt no lessons from his father’s fall. His days were numbered. The same night the King was slain. The writing on the wall became true.

i) How is the story of Belshazzar important to us ?
ii) Where were those golden goblets brought from?
iii) What was the sheer blasphemy referred to in the story?
iv) The wise learn from others’ mistakes; fools don’t learn even from their own mistakes. This is a great saying. Do you see the truth of this saying here?
v) Who interpreted the writing on the wall ?
vi) What brought the fall of Nebuchadnezzar ?
vii) Write the one-word substitute used in the passage that means behaviour that insults God.
viii) Find out the idiom used in the passage to mean he would not continue to live/he would die soon.
i) It is important as it teaches us valuable lessons.
ii) from the temple of Jerusalem
iii) using golden goblets of a temple to serve wine
iv) Yes. I do see the truth.
v) the wise Daniel
vi) power corrupted Nebuchadnezzar till his fall.
vii) blasphemy
viii) his days were numbered

9. Faith… Distinct

Jainism holds a distinct view about the God. Mahavira’s belief in the individual is insuperable. He declares, unhesitatingly, that every individual (Atma) is the Supreme Being (Paramatma).Mahavira attracts everyone’s admiration with his ability to destroy his own Karma, to know himself, and break free from the endless cycles of death and rebirth. Jain literature emphasises the need to examine Dharma critically.

It also advises one to discover the hidden knowledge in oneself – that is self-realization. When that happens, one realises that every creature is like oneself and one’s pain is other’s pain. That is what true Ahimsa is. They go to the extent of asserting that the God is no more than MAN’S own higher self. What a unique belief! And Jains sincerely seek to reach that higher self!

i) What makes Jainism different from other faiths?
ii) What did Mahavira believe in firmly?
iii) What quality of Mahavira draws everyone’s admiration towards him?
iv) Does one need to examine Dharma critically? Think of this critically, keeping in mind your views about Dharma:
v) What do Jains say about the God? Do you agree with them?
vi) Mahavira’s trust in the individual is rather unshakeable. Does it do good to the individual? Explain in a sentence or two.
vii) The word discover is a combination of dis (prefix) + cover (root). Analyse toe word unhesitatingly in the same way.
viii) Add one prefix and one or two suffixes to the root word believe.
i) their view about the God
ii) in the individual
iii) his ability to destroy his own Karma, to know himself and break free from the endless cycles of death and rebirth
iv) Yes, one needs to examine Dharma critically.
v) They say that the God is no more than MAN’S Own higher self. No, I don’t agree with them.
vi) Yes, it does good to the individual. That trust makes the individual better than what he has been till then in many ways.
vii) un(prefix) hesitate (root) + ing (suffix -1), ly (suffix – 2)
viii) unbelievably- un (prefix) + – able and -ly (suffixes)

10. Should the Wait; Continue for Quality and Equality

People who drafted our Constitution, also known as fathers of our constitution, did not intend that we just set up hovels, put students there, give untrained teachers, give them bad textbooks, no playgrounds and say we have complied with article 45 I dream to see students cultivate such a scientific spirit that they pursue their academics despite a Hindu V.C. is heading Aligarh Muslim University or a Muslim V.C. is administering Benares Hindu University.

These are the views of Mohammadali Carim Chagla (30.9.1900-19.02.1982), expressed as the Union Education Minister (1963 -1966). Look at the quality and equality he aimed at. Sixty years have passed since then. Yet, the wait continues. People like Chaglas are needed in multiples. He was a jurist, diplomat, minister with commitment to the cause of the country. Opposing the ideology of communal-based two nations, he broke ranks with his long-term associates. Education system needs such men to make it a man-making system!

i) About our education system, this passage expresses __________. Fill in the blank choosing from the list.
a) happiness
b) anger
c) satisfaction
d) anguish

ii) Are we complying with the provisions of our constitution regarding providing education? Support your answer with a sentence from the passage.
iii) When can you say that students are cultivating scientific spirit?
iv) The views quoted in the passage were expressed sixty years ago. Are they relevant today? Provide proof from the passage that supports your answer.
v) Why does education system need men like Chaglas ?
vi) What did Chagla do to oppose communal-based nations ideology?.
vii) Find out the idiom used in the passage that means dissociated from.
viii) Write the one-word substitute used in the passage that can replace a set of ideas, beliefs etc held by a group of people.
i) anguish
ii) No .. set up hovels, put students there, give untrained teachers, give them bad textbooks, no playgrounds.
iii) When students pursue their academics even if a Hindu V.C. is heading the AMU or a Muslim V.C. is administering the BHU.
iv) Yes, relevant today Yet, the wait continues.
v) to make it a man-making system
vi) He broke ranks with his long-term associates.
vii) broke ranks with
viii) ideology

11. Honesty is the Best Policy

Jataka Tales seek to spread moral values. See this. People once believed that the spirit of Bodhisattva lived in a holy castor tree. So, they used to offer prayers to the tree and place expensive gifts there. A poor man came there one day, prayed to the tree and wanted to present a piece of bread to the tree. But, feeling ashamed of his poor gift, he turned back without offering it.

Suddenly, a man appeared before him. He said he was hungry. He requested for that piece of bread. The poor man happily handed it over to him. Then, he informed that poor man about a pot of gold coins in the ground there. The man was ‘poor but he was honest. He knew how to play the King about that treasure. Valuing the poor man’s honesty, the King made him his royal treasurer!

i) What do Jataka Tales aim at ?
ii) Why did people pray to the castor tree?
iii) How did the poor man feel when he saw the expensive gifts placed at the castor tree?
iv) Who approached that poor man requesting him for that piece of bread?
v) The poor man became the royal treasurer.’ What made him occupy that Important position?
vi) The words tale (used in the passage) and tail are homo- phones (with different spellings but the same sounds). Another set is see – sea. Now write two sets of homophones with peace and hymn.
vii) Write the noun form of the adjective hungry.
viii) Find out the Idiom used in the passage to mean act in the correct manner
i) They aim at spreading moral values.
ii) as they believed that the spirit of Bodhisattva lived in that castor tree.
iii) The poor man felt ashamed of his poor gift.
iv) a hungry man
v) His honesty and the king valuing it made him the royal treasurer.
vi) peace – piece; hymn – him
vii) hunger
viii) play the game

12. Fastforwarded forest, the Miyawaki Way

India’s largest Miya the forest is coming up on a ter acre site at Kothapeta of Hyderabad. As part f Haritha Haram (green garland) to Telangana, the state government grounded work to plant two lakh saplings here on 24 July 2020. Miya- waki forests adopt the technique and name of a Japanese botanist, Akira Miyawaki. In 1970s, Miyawaki began to plant trees, shrubs and grasses in tight groves.

Saplings planted close together grow rapidly – in leaps and bounds – as they compete for light. It is struggle for survival, for sunlight! This concept soon caught the imagination of governments and boardrooms. Akira Miyawaki is believed to have supervised planting over fifteen hundred forests of this type around the globe! Impressed by the positive results of the Miyawaki method and moved by the urgent need to grow greenery, Shubhendu Sharma, an engineer at a Toyota factory, giving up a golden-goose-like job, founded a native forest-planting firm, with a view to popularising Miyawaki forests in India. The country now boasts of hundreds of thousands of Miyawaki forest trees!

i) What is the speciality of the urban forest coming up at Kothapeta of Hyderabad ?
ii) Why are forests of the type discussed in the passage called Miyawald forests ?
iii) Mention the technique adopted in growing Miyawaki forests. Write its consequences as well.
iv) Write the sentence from the passage that shows the popularity of this type of forests.
v) How does Shubhendu Sharma seek to popularise Miyawaki forests in India?
vi) Pick out the Idiom used in the passage which means quickly, fast.
vii) Find out the phrasal verb used in the passage with the meaning quitting, leaving.
viii) What is the expression used in the passage to say made someone interested in ?
i) It is the India’s largest Miyawaki forest.
ii) after the name of Akira Miyawaki who developed this concept
iii) Saplings are planted in close groves – very, very near to each other. That makes them compete for sunlight and grow very fast.
iv) There are about fifteen hundred forests of this type all over the globe..
v) by founding a native forest-planting firm
vi) in leaps and bounds
vii) giving up
viii) caught the imagination

13. An Empire Entirely Meant for the Wild

A seventy-acre, man-made forest near Suryapet has exclusively and entirely been dedicated to the wild. An amazingly ‘ incredible spirit of an agricultural graduate, Mr Dussaria Satyanarayana of Raghavapuram near Motey (Suryapet district) made this a reality and possibility. Birds and animals of hundreds of types have homes in this haven. The nature lover behind this project takes all measures to make this expanse a sanctuary.

Every product of this forest goes tc feed the wild. Not a grain from here goes out for human consumption: Even the fallen trees feed white ants and gel bio-degraded. Seven tanks dug here and there meet the water needs. The missionary zeal in him keeps him off the beaten track. He thanks his friends who happily share expenses. BBC Telugu telecast a ten-minute video of his mission. May his tribe multiply!

i) What is the special feature of this forest as highlighted in the title?
ii) Who created this amazingly incredible wonder ?
iii) Where is that man-made forest?
iv) How do his friends help this nature-lover?
v) Write the synonym, from the passage, of the word unbelievable.
vi) Pick out from the passage the one-word substitute that means an area where wild birds and animals are protected.
vii) Find out the idiom used in the passage to mean far away from other people, houses, etc.
viii) Mark stress on the right syllable of the word missionary
i) It is entirely meant for the wild.
ii) Mr Dussarla Satyanarayana
iii) at Raghavapuram
iv) by sharing expenses
v) incredible
vi) sanctuary
vii) off the beaten track
viii) ‘missionary

14. Father of Indian Industry – Pioneer of Global Philanthropy

Can you imagine who tops the list of philanthropists from across the globe in the last one hundred years? Thought of Tatas? You are, then, right! A survey by Edel-Give Foundation and Hurun India shows us some interesting facts. Tata’s contribution to charity over a century is $102 billions. Gates, with their$74.6 bn share, stand second in the list.

The only other Indian in the list of top fifty philanthropists is Azim Premji of Wipro, placed at 12th rank, with a share of $22 bn. The survey lists thirty-nine US citizens, five Europeans, three Chinese and two Indians. By starting their Trust for charity in 1892 (130 years ago!) Tatas, the doyen of Indian industry, proved themselves to be the pioneers of global philanthropy too. It is no wonder, then, that Jawaharlal Nehru often referred to Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata as the one-man planning commission. Answer the following questions. i) Describe the status of Tatas in global philanthropy. ii) Who conducted the survey about global philanthropy over the period of one hundred years? iii) How many US citizens find place in this list of top fifty philanthropists? iv) When did Tatas establish their Trust for charity? v) Name the two Indians who find place in this list vi) How did Jawaharlal Nehru often refer to J N Tata ? vii) Find out the synonym, from the passage, of the word philanthropy. viii) Mark stress on the right syllables of foundation, contribution, commission Answers: i) Tatas top the list of philanthropists from across the globe. ii) Edel-Give Foundation and Hurun India iii) thirty-nine (39) iv) in 1892 v) Tatas and Azim Premji vi) as the one-man planning commission vii) charity viii) foun’dation contri’bution commission 15. Ananda Nilavam. literally! Ananda Nilayam (Delight’s Dwelling / Home of Happiness)! The name speaks volumes about the place. Situated at Kondapaka (Siddipet district), two hundred metres off Hyderabad – Siddipet road, on a one-hundred-acre site, the place mainly serves the old (now forty inmates) with not much emotional support from their children. Even orphaned children (now numbering around 50) are provided shelter, care and education. What looked like dry barren land with scattered bushes before 2010 is now a tastefully landscaped garden. Chirping birds, dancing twigs, fragrant flowers etc. greet the visitors and the inmates. A teacher from Siddipet one Mr Peddi Vaikuntam, along with other trustees and with advice and active help from Dr K.Y. Ramana Chary IAS (Rtd),, now advisor, Government of Telangana, initiated the process and has been carrying on me mission with success rates beyond expectations. An industrialist from Karnataka Ms Sudha Janardan contributed Rs Fifty Lakhs to this project. Charity from rice-millers of Siddipet and Hotel Suprabhath of Hyderabad (Krishna Murthy – groceries) helps the trust provide food, medical services etc to the inmates at a nominal charge. The Trust has been serving gods, humans and nature with beauty, quality and equality. Each face here reflects the name of the place! Answer the following questions. i) Does the name of this Old Age Home indicate the mood and response of the inmates? Support your answer with a sentence from the passage. ii) Where is this Home for the Aged located? iii) Who initiated the project and who has been actively monitoring all the activities of the home? iv) How do they manage to provide good food, medical facilities etc. with-nominal charges from the inmates? v) Name the donor from a neighbouring state and the sum donated by her. vi) Write the word used in the passage that means kindness, support, money etc extended to people in need. vii) Find out the phrasal verb used in the passage to mean continuing with the work and taking it forward. viii) Mark stress on the right syllables of the words charity, quality and equality. Answers: i) Yes. Each face here reflects the name of the place. ii) at Kondapak iii) Mr Peddi Vaikuntam iv) with the help of charity from rice millers and hotel owners v) Ms Sudha Janardan – 50 lakh rupees vi) charity vii) carrying on viii) ‘charity ‘quality e’quality 16. Humanity at its Zenitli Professional ethics coupled with concern for common man put this humane doctor at a peak that is close to divinity!. He is Doctor Edpuganti Hridayanath, practising medicine at Ravinuthula, (Krishnapadu Mandai) from a tiled home since March 17,1972 (fifty years of service). So far twenty lakh patients availed themselves of his services. 0f them, around ten thousand persons underwent surgeries. After completing MBBS from Kakinada, in 1971, he moved to Ravinuthula on the request of a patient – Ms Rattamma. Understanding patients’ social, economic and emotional conditions helps him treat them effectively and at a low cost. He charges just seventy rupees as OP fee for a month. But he regards the smiles of patients as they leave healthy as invaluable fee. He lives a simple life but thinks high. He is worried about the falling moral values. He is happy that his children and I grandchildren appreciate his values! He has inspired dozens of his villagers to pursue medical education. Long live Doctor Hridayanath to help others live long and stay healthy. Answer the following questions. i) How long has Dr Hridavanath been practising medicine at Ravinuthula. ii) Mention the appropriate number of persons who utilized this humane doctor’s medical services. iii) What helps Dr Hridayanath treat his patients effectively and at a low cost? iv) What is it that Dr Hridayanath regards as invaluable fee from his patients? Do you agree with him ? v) What is Dr Hridayanath worried about? vi) How do his children and grandchildren make him happy? vii) Write the outcome of his inspiration to his villagers. viii) Write the word that is used in the passage to mean moral values. Answers: i) for 50 years ii) twenty lakh patients iii) his understanding of patients’ social, economic and emotional conditions iv) their smiles as they go out happy and healthy v) about the falling moral values vi) by appreciating his values vii) dozens of his villagers are pursuing medical education viii) ethics 17. A Sporting Genius Meet Mithali Doral Raj, a rarecricketing genius. Bom on 3 December 1982 at Jodhpur, Rajasthan, she had her cricketing debut on 26 June 1999 (at just 17) as she played for India in a One-day International Match against Ireland. Her Test debut was on 14 January 2002. Awards she received are many. The first among them is Arjuna Award (2003). In 2015, she-received the PadmaShri. The latest feather in her cap is Major Dhyanchand Khel Ratna Award (2021). Records to her credit are innumerable indeed. Some of them are: (a) only woman to cross 7000 run mark in GDIs; (b) the first player to score seven consecutive half centuries in ODIs; (c) the first player from India (male or female) to score 2000 runs in Twenty-Twenty matches; (d) only woman player to have captained more than one ICC ODI World Cup Finals (in 2005 and 2017); (e) the first woman to play in 200 ODIs; (f) the first woman to complete 20 years in International Cricket. Inspiring indeed! It is sad that when she was in good form and could have played for a couple of more years, she declared her retirement on 10th June 2022. May her spirit encourage other sports persons. Answer the following questions. i) When did Ms Mithali Raj make her first International Test appearance? ii) Where was Ms Mithali Raj born ? iii) What is the latest award she received and when ? iv) How is she distinct in terms of half centuries in ODIs ? v) How long has she been playing in international cricket (till 2022) ? vi) Name her distinction as a captain in ODl World Cup finals. vii) Write the one-word substitute used in the passage that means the first public appearance of a player /performer / artist. viii) Find out the idiom used in the passage that means some achievement one is proud of Answers: i) on 14 January 2002 ii) at Jodhpur, Rajastan iii) Major Dhyanchand Khel Ratna Award in 2021 iv) the first player to score seven consecutive half centuries in ODIs v) for twenty years vi) only woman player to have captained more than one ICC ODI World Cup Final vii) debut viii) feather in one’s cap 18. MatheMaGician Defining What Super Is! Anand aa gaya was Anand’s grandmother’s comment when he was born on 01.01.1973 into a trouble-torn poor family. Thirty years after that new year day, a new era of spreading happiness began. This simple-looking miraculous mathematical genius started offering free IIT-JEE coaching to thirty poor students. Located in Patna and titled Super- 30, this institute has redefined Super and Pedagogy. The success rates are so incredible that any doubting Thomas would label it as a cock and bull story. But then statistics shows it all. 18/30 (first batch, 2003), 22/30 (2004),26/30,28/ 30,30/30 in 2007,2008 and 2009 respectively. And there has never been looking back. The Hindu said Midas. The Newsweek called it “one of the four most innovative schools in the world”. Bouquets are bountiful, brickbats are not lagging behind, though. The secret of this amazing success: Anand makes the learners THINK, and THINK ALWAYS! Intention, intelligence, inquisitive nature, commitment, confidence, competence etc. work here consistently and concertedly. A true model to teachers! Answer the following questions. i) Anand has a happy childhood. Write true or false. Support your answer with a sentence from the passage. ii) How has Anand been spreading happiness? iii) What is the secret of Anand’s success? iv) How has the Newsweek described Anand’s Super-30 institute? v) Have you heard of any other institute that can be compared with Super-30 in IIT-JEE achievements ? vi) Write the synonym, from the passage, of epoch. vii) Find out the one-word substitute used in the passage to mean the study and practice of teaching methods. viii) Pick out the idiom used in the passage that means something that is not true Answers: i) False – He was born into a trouble-torn poor family. ii) by offering free IIT-JEE coaching to 30 poor students every year iii) Anand makes the learners THiNK and THINK ALWAYS; iv) as one of the four most innovative schools in the world v) No, No, such institute vi) era vii) pedagogy viii) a cock and bull story 19. Intelligence at its zenith The students of Rula College, Mumbai were wonderstruck when they saw a nine- year-old visiting professor explaining the difficult concepts of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry with ease. He is Sobomo Isaac Bari, the youngest professor in the world. Born in 2012 to Rashidul Bari, a mathematician and Shaheda Bari, he showed exceptional abilities from childhood. For his problem-solving capacities, he got a letter of recognition from the former U.S. President Barrack Obama in 2016 and received the Global Child Prodigy Award in 2020. India nominated him for the Nobel Prize 2021. Besides being a genius in Mathematics and Science, he is a writer. At the tender age of seven, he wrote a book titled The Love which outlines his dream to live in a world without terrorism. You must be inspired at the- child prodigy’s exceptional intelligence and moved by his plea for communal harmony and world peace! Then, let’s unleash “THE LOVE”… Answer the following questions. i) Why were the Ruia College students wonder-struck? ii) What is the greatness of Soborno Bari? iii) What is Soborno’s father? iv) Former U.S. President Donald Trump recognized Soborno’s problem-solving capacities. Say true or false. v) Which country nominated the child prodigy for the Nobel Prize 2021 ? vi) What does the book The Love outline ? vii) Write, from the passage, the opposite of the word dunce. viii) Find the word from the passage which means a young person with remarkable abilities. Answers: i) as they ‘saw a nine-year-old visiting professor explaining difficult concepts of mathematics, physics and chemistry with ease ii) He is the youngest professor in the world iii) a mathematician iv) false v) India vi) his dream to live in a world without terrorism vii) genius viii) prodigy 20. A World of Books or a Book of the World! Learning there is pure fun. Life skills form the core of the curriculum. Lessons are drawn from the book of the world, not from the ‘World of academic books. Field visits the regular feature. Educational tours are annual events. Gardening is a hobby. In vast pla’ grounds, they discuss physics principles. Classrooms get converted into )layf: ids. The day dawns with games and physical activities. Reading newspapers is followed by Satsangs – discussions. Letter writing, story writing, book reviews, stage performance, songs, dances drawing etc. are quite common activities here. Quizzes top them all. Prizes won in national and state level competitions number in hundreds. Everyone associated with this school was on cloud nine whom an eighth-grade girl by nanm Namrutha watched Chandrayan live along with Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 6 September 2019 from ISRO Bengaluru. That fun-filled school is Teja Vidyalaya! at Kodada, (a true temple of learning, and surprisingly, a temple has now come up beside it!) The inspiration, they say, is Rishi Valley ot Jiddu Krishna Murthy. And the school lives up to the inspiration! Answer the following questions. i) What forms the core of the curriculum at this fun-filled school? ii) Name the regular feature followed at this school. iii) How often do they conduct educational tours? iv) When do Satsangs take place? v) Where does the inspiration to run such a school come from? vi) Write the. idiom used in the passage to mean extremely happy. vii) Pick out the word from the passage that means the central part / essence. viii) Mark stress .on the right syllable of the word inspiration Answers: i) life skills ii) field visits iii) once a year (annually) iv) after reading newspapers v) from Rishi Valley vi) on cloud nine vii) core viii) inspiration 21. Mother of Inventor Necessity is the Mother of Invention. So goes the widely- accepted wise saying. Here, however, a mother’s toil for long hours brought out the inventor in Padma Shri Chintakindi Mallesham. Born into a poor weaver’s family in Sharajpet village near Alair, Dr Mallesham dropped out of school after his s” class. His mother, Lakshmi, used to work on a manual Asu (a pre-loom activity in tie and dye weaving fashion). That tedious work (turning the threads around the Asu for 9000 times to get yarn ready for just one saree!) used to leave her shoulders and joints strained to extreme levels. Moved by his mother’s pain, Dr Mallesham decided to find a way out. He moved heaven and earth for years. His determination was his sole resource. Challenges were many. Support from his wife Swarna (literally ‘gold’!) and a few friends mattered a lot. Finally in 1999, he made his dream come true. Mechanical Laxmi (his mother’s name) Asu saw the light of day. That filled many weavers’ homes with the light of relief from their toil. Accolades came his way. Governments, universities, NGOs honoured him. A biopic was made based on his achievements. Even Forbes listed him among the seven powerful rural entrepreneurs. Now he runs an Asu-making unit at Alair. He visits institutions inspiring the young with his simple, to-the-point and time-specific talks. Answer the following questions. i) What throught out the inventor in Dr Mallesham ? ii) Describe the work done on Asu. iii) Describe the conditions in which Dr Mallesham struggled to make his dream machine. iv) Does his invention help his mother alone ? Support your answer with evidence from the passage. v) Name any two honours Dr Mallesham received. vi) Find out the Idiom used in the passage that means did everything one could possibly do in order to achieve something. vii) Pick out the one-word 8UbstibI~e from the passage that means persons who start business especially when that Involves taking financial risks. viii) A portmanteau /po:(r)t’maent3u/word is a word blending the sounds and combining the meaning of two words – Example: smoke + fog – smog. Now find out one such portmanteau word from the passage that blends biography + picture . Answers: i) his mother’s toil and the resultant pain ii) It is a pre-loom activity in tie and dye weaving fashion. Threads are wound around the Asu to get yarn ready. iii) Challenges were many. Determination was his sole resource. Support from his wife and a few friends meant a lot. iv) No. It helped many others. That filled many weavers’ homes with the light of relief from their toil. v) the Padrna Shri and honorary Doctorate vi) moved heaven and earth vii) entrepreneurs viii) biopic 22. A tele book Vs an ordinary book A tele book is quite different from an ordinary book. In an ordinary book, words are printed on pages and remain there. A tele book, on the other hand, consists of words which appear on a screen and keep moving on it. People go through a tele book by reading words as they appear on the screen. The advantage, of tele books is that a great number of such books can be shown on a single screen. The disadvantage is that we cannot turn back the page to read something again, With the invention of Kindle (an electronic tool, looking like a tablet, that call be used as a digital book) this problem has now largely been served It is time we learnt to read tele books the same way we have been reading ordinary books. The day is not far, when ordinary books may become obsolete…. Answer the following questions. i) How is an ordinary book different from an unconventional book? ii) What is the advantage of the new kind of books ? iii) ‘How has the invention of Kindle helped us ? iv) Why should we learn to read tele books the same way we have been reading ordinary books ? v) Fill in the blank with the most appropriate option from the list given below: The passage highlights a) fast changing technology b) the need on our part to change with the times c) the way the world is turning into an e-world vi) Write the part of speech of the word advantage. vii) The word book is used in the passage to mean a bundle of bounded papers with words printed on the papers. Use the same word book in your own sentences with two other meanings of the word book. viii) Add one prefix and one suffix to the root advantage Answers: i) In an ordinary book words are printed on pages and they remain there. But in an unconventional book (Tele book) words appear on a screen and keep moving. ii) A great number of books can be shown on a single screen. iii) It solved the disadvantage of not being able to go back. iv) because ordinary books may soon become obsolete v) (b) the need on our part to change with the times vi) noun vii) They are trying to book (v – reserve) tickets for their proposed trip to Chennai. They may book (v – register) a case of theft. viii) disadvantageous 23. Indomitable Indeed! Amazing young man this … tweeted Kalvakuntla Taraka Rama Rao of Telangana Rashtra Samithi. “Dreaming big and working hard – this nineteen-year-old ‘runs’ home post his work shift as he dreams to be in the army,” said German Embassy, India. These sample encomiums are in response to Vinod Kapri’s – a film-maker and author – viral video. It is about Pradeep Mehra, a nineteen-year-old army aspirant from Almora of Uttarakhand. One night, Kapri saw him running on the roads of Noida. On being asked why he was sprinting, Pradeep replied that his dream was to join the army. So; he runs ten kilometres a day from his workplace, Macdonald’s outlet at Sector 16, to his home at Barola. He supports his elder brother, cooks food for him and thinks of his ailing mother back home. He is so firm about his routine and views that he smilingly said ‘no’ to Kapri’s offer of dinner and dropping at his destination. By declining Kapri’s offer to drive him home, Pradeep is in fact driving home the value of regular hard work! Answer the following questions. i) Who shared the viral video discussed in the passage? ii) Where does Pradeep Mehra hail from? iii) Why does Pradeep Mehra run home — ten-kilometre- destination from his workplace – every day? iv) What did Vinod Kapri offer Pradeep Mehra and how did Pradeep respond to Kapri’s offer? v) Even common people, with their uncommon deeds, dreams and traits, tan attract the attention of prominent persons. Support this statement with the help of the above passage. vi) Write the Idiom .used in this passage which means making others understand / explaining. vii) ‘Pick out from the passage the synonym of praise / tribute. viii) Mark stress on.the right syllable of the word destination. Answers: i) Vinod Kapri ii) from Almora of Uttarakhand iii) to get practice to join the army iv) offered dinner and dropping at home – refused as he was firm about his routine and views v) Prominent persons like KTR and Emabassy officials tweeted appreciating this common man’s uncommon traits. vi) driving home vii) encomium viii) destination 24. Age No Barrier Quest for knowledge Is unquenchable. The more one tastes it the more the person craves for it. And it lasts till one’s last moment. Nothing can deter the determined mind from the pursuit. Here is a proof in a retired but untiring bank employee. After he hung up his boots, he acquired a dozen degrees in different domains like Business Administration, Covicll9, Crime, Psychology, Law and Software. What could be his motive? “My urge to set an example to youth drove me,” answers Shri Ramalingeswara Rao B., from the heart of Hyderabad. Somajiguda. Proving that good manners are infectious; his son is an IlTian (with a dual degree) and his daughter (state s” ranker in EAMCET in composite AP) is a postgraduate in medicine. He spreads his tentacles into disciplines like serving the orphaned aged persons, writing poetry and raising coffee plantations in cool Karnataka hill slopes. Does one need more to live fully and meaningfully? Let’s emulate him! Answer the following questions. i) What does the passage say about one’s thirst for knowledge? ii) How does the passage elaborate its views about one’s urge to learn more and more? iii) “Good manners are infectious”, asserts the passage. What evidence does it provide? iv) How does Shri B. Ramalingeswara Rao spend his time now? v) Write the idiom used in this passage to mean retired. vi) Pick out the word (a homonym) from the passage that is used twice in one sentence with these meanings: continues and final. vii) Find out from the passage the synonym of discipline. viii) The word untiring can be analysed as un (prefix) + tire (root) + ing (suffix). Now analyse the word unquenchable in the same way. Answers: i) Quest for knowledge is unquenchable. ii) The more one tastes it (knowledge), the more the person craves for it. iii) Like the father, his children also studied well and got rewarded. iv) by serving orphaned aged persons, writing poetry and raising coffee plantations v) hung up boots vi) last vii) domain viii) un(prefix) + quench (root) + able (suffix) 25. Private Tragedy Serving a Public Cause Falguni, wife of Dasarath Manjhi, died in 1959 of the injuries she suffered as she fell down from a mountainous path and of delayed medical help because, again, of the mountainous path! Manjhi (14.01.1934 – 17.08.2007), a labourer from Gehlaur village near Gaya in Bihar was moved into action by her death. Born into a low caste, he thought high. He started carving a path through the ridges. People called him lunatic. Yet, he toiled with a hammer, chisel and his steely resolve. Twenty-two years (1960-1982) of his single-handed efforts bore fruit. The 110 metre-long, 9.1 metre-wide and 7.7-metre- deep path he carved through the ridges reduced the distance between Gehlaur and Gaya by forty kilo metres (from 55 to ‘15 KMs). Bihar Government honoured him. India Post released a stamp featuring him. A memorial with his statue stands tall in Gehlaur. People fondly remember him as the Mountain Man. Yet, the real reward to this departed soul could be to provide roads and medical aid to every village in India! Answer the following questions. i) Mention the reasons or Falguni’s death. ii) How did Falguni’s death move her husband, Manjhi ? iii) What were the tools Manjhi used to carve the path through the ridges? iv) People fondly remember Manjhi as the Mountain Man because of his ……………. the blank choosing from: a) caste b) deed c) wealth v) How nearer is Gaya to Gehlaur because of the path.Manjhi created? vi) List the honours governments and people extended to Manjhi. vii) Find out the idiom used in the passage to mean had a successful result. viii) Write the part of speech of the word mountainous Answers: i) injuries suffered as she fell down and delayed medical help ii) moved him into action of carving a path through the mountain iii) a hammer, chisel and his steely resolve iv) (b) deed v) by forty kms (55 to 15) vi) Bihar government’s felicitation, a postal stamp, a memorial with his statue vii) bore fruit viii) adjective 26. The Last Lecture: Best Lessons It was 18 September 2007. Carnegie Mellon University (US) auditorium was echoing with laughter as forty-six-year-old Randy Pausch was delivering an upbeat and humorous lecture. And, then, he knew he would die in a few months’ Terminal pancreatic cancer was the villain. He, yet, stressed the need to live fully and have fun in everything. He suddenly dropped and did push-ups to prove his point. Living right is more important than achieving dreams, asserted he. He listed his achieved dreams, quite many, though. He thanked every- one who taught him a lesson or two. And he passed on those valuable lessons to posterity. He wants one to be frugal, not miserly. He advises elders to give children permission’ and inspiration to dream. He appeals to teachers to enable learners to achieve dreams. The most significant lesson, however, is the way he took the bull (of cancer or death) by the horns. The Last Lectures extended version is the best- selling book with the same title, worth reading again and again! Answer the following questions. i) When and where was this Last Lecture delivered? ii) The auditorium echoed with loud laughter. Yet, every listener was crying silently. Why? iii) What did the speaker emphasise despite being in the face of death? iv) He suddenly dropped and did push-ups on the stage. How would you have reacted, had you been there? v) What is his appeal to teachers? vi) The word pancreatic is an adjective. Write its noun form. vii) Write the two words you see in the passage that mean: a) using only as much money as is necessary… and b) hating to spend money. viii) Find out the idiom used in the passage to mean faced a difficult or dangerous situation directly and with courage Answers: i) on 18-09-2007; at Carnegie Mellon University auditorium ii) because they all knew that the speaker was about to die very soon. iii) to live fully and have fan in everything iv) I would have been surprised and shocked v) to enable learners to achieve their dreams vi) pancreas vii) a) frugal b) miserly viii) took the bull by the horns 27. Two Friends Two friends, Amanda and Margot, one day were walking together in a desert. In the heat of an argument, Margot slapped Amanda in the face who was hurt but without saying anything, wrote on the sand, “Today, my best friend Margot slapped me in the face”. They kept on walking until they found an oasis, where they decided to take a bath. While bathing, Amanda got stuck in the mire and started drowning. Then, naturally, Margot saved Amanda by pulling her out of the quicksand. After recovering from near drowning, Amanda wrote on a stone, “Today, my best friend Margot saved my life”. On being asked by confused Margot why she did so, Amanda replied, “When someone hurts us, we should write it down in sand, where winds of forgiveness can erase it, but when someone does something good for us, we must engrave it on a stone, so no wind can erase it”. Answer the following questions. i) Where were the two friends walking ? ii) Why did Margot slap Amanda ? iii) What happened to Amanda when she was bathing ? iv) What would have happened to Amanda if Margot had not saved her ? v) What is the difference between writing in the sand and writing on a stone ? vi) According to the passage, we should never forgive our friends if they hurt us. Write yes or no. vii) Find the word, from the passage, which means to remove all traces of something. viii) Give the antonym of the word punishment from the passage. Answers: i) in a desert ii) in the heat of an argument iii) got stuck in the mire iv) Amanda would have died. v) Writing in the sand is erased with winds of forgiveness. Writing on a stone stays on forever. vi) No vii) erase viii) forgiveness ## TS Inter 2nd Year English Reading Comprehension Passages from Short Stories Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 2nd Year English Study Material Reading Comprehension Passages from Short Stories Exercise Questions and Answers. ## TS Inter 2nd Year English Reading Comprehension Passages from Short Stories Q.No.6 – (4 out of 6 Questions: 4 × 1 = 4 Marks) EXERCISES The Women on Platform No.8 Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow in a word or sentence each. 1) She took me into the station dining room and ordered tea, samosas, and jalebies. At once I began to relax and take an interest in this kind woman The strange meeting with her had little effect on my appetite. I was a hungry schoolboy. I ate as much as I could without being impolite. She took pleasure in watching me eat. I think the food strengthened our friendship, for under the influence of the tea and sweets I began to talk quite freely. I told her about my school, my friends, my likes and dislikes. She questioned me quietly from time to time, but preferred listening Questions : 1) Who is ‘she’ referred to in this passage? 2) Where did she take the boy? 3) What did she order for him? 4) The strange meeting had no effect on his appetite. Write whether it is true or false. 5) I ate as much as I could without being impolite.” What did he mean statement? Choose the best answer. a. I ate so much food with being polite. b. I ate not much food without being polite. c. I ate sufficient quantity of food without being shy. d. I ate scanty food with a feeling of fear. 6) What did he think of the food offered by the woman? 7) What did he exchange with her during their talk? 8) What did the woman prefer, questioning or listening? Answers: 1) the woman on platform No.8; the strange woman 2) to the station dining room 3) samosas, jalebies and tea 4) True 5) a) I late so much food with being polite. 6) It strengthened their friendship. 7) about his school friends, his likes and dislikes 8) listening 2) As it approached, a boy jumped off the platform and ran across the tracks to the next platform. He was at a safe distance from the train and there was no danger unless he had fallen. But as he leapt across the tracks, the woman with me gripped my arm. Her fingers dug into my flesh painfully. I looked up at her. Her face was filled with pain and fear, and then sadness swept over her eyes. She watched the boy until he disappeared in the crowd and only then she relaxed her hold on my arm. She smiled at me and took my hand again, but her fingers trembled against mine. “He was all right,” I said, feeling that she needed reassurance. Questions : 1) What did Arun see when a train approached? 2) What was the woman’s reaction on seeing the boy leap across the tracks? 3) What type of emotions did the boy observe in her face? 4) Why do you think sadness swept over her eyes when a boy danger? 5) How long did she watch the boy? 6) Only after the boy disappeared that she relaxed. Write true or false 7) “She relaxed only after the boy safely disappeared into Write the true or false. 8) What type of relation between do you notice between the boy and women. Answers: 1) A boy jumping off the platform 2) She gripped Aurn’s arm 3) pain, fear and sadness. 4) Probably she was reminded of the loss of her dear one on the tracks. 5) until he disappeared in the crowd 6) true 7) false 8) that of a mother and her son 3) By now I really didn’t like Satish’s mother at all. She clearly thought that I and “my mother” came from a very poor family. Because of that, I did not intend giving the other woman away. I let her take my hand in hers, but I could think of nothing to say. I was conscious of Satish’s mother staring at us with hard, unkind eyes, and I found myself hating her. The guard walked up the platform, blowing his whistle as the train got ready to leave. I looked straight into the eyes of the woman who held my hand. She smilec’ in a gentle, understanding way. I leaned out of the window then to her cheek and kissed her. Questions : 1) Did Arun like Satish’s mother? Which other word in the his feeling? 2) What was the opinion of Satish’s mother on Arun and his mother 3) Who is the other woman referred to here? 4) What was Arun conscious of? 5) Arun let her take his hand into hers and said nothing. Write whether it is true or false. 6) Pick out from the passage train-related words. For example, guard 7) When he leaned out of the window to kiss her, was the train moving 8) Pick out the word which is the antonym of soft. Answers: 1) No; hating 2) They came from a poor family. 3) mother of Satish 4) of Satish’s mother staring at them with hard, unkind eyes 5) true 6) whistle, window 7) No. 8) hard A Gift For Christmas 4) Della finished crying. She went up to the looking-glass and began to powder her cheeks. Then she stood by the window and looked out dully at a grey cat walking on a grey fence in a grey backyard. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day and she had only$ 1.87 with which to buy Jim a present. She had saving every penny she could for months, with this result. Twenty dollars week doesn’t go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated They always are. Only \$ 1.87 to buy a present for Jim. Oh, the many happy hours she had spent planning for something nice for him! Something fine and rare, worthy of the honour of being owned by Jim.

Questions :
1) Why was Della crying?
2) Where did Della go?
3) Where did Della stand?
4) Where did Della look out?
5) The day before Christmas is called _______________ (Fill in the blank choosing from the options.)
a) Boxing Day
b) Shopping Day
c) Christmas Eve .
6) Why had Della been saving every penny for months?
7) What did she do to get the money?
8) Write the synonym of the word gift from the passage.
1) Della was crying because she couldn’t save or get money to buy Jim a gift for Christmas.
2) to the looking-glass
3) She stood by the window.
4) She looked out at a grey cat walking on a grey fence in a grey backyard
5) C) Christmas Eve
7) She saved pennies – day by day, for long. (Later, she sold her long brown hair.)
8) Present

B) She found it at last. It surely had been made for Jim and no one else. There was no other like it in any of the stores. It was a platinum watch-chain, simple but well made. It was worthy of the watch. As soon as she saw it she decided that it was the right present for Jim. She paid twenty-one dollars for it and hurried home with the 87 cents that remained.

Questions :
1) What did she find?
2) What was the impression that she did get after looking at the gift?
3) What was the chain made of ?
4) How much did she pay to buy the present?
5) How much money remained with her?
6) What did she buy for Jim?
7) She paid money in Euros. True or False?
8) Write the synonym of the word hastened from the passage
1) She found a suitable Christmas gift.
3) It was made of platinum.
4) twenty-one dollars
5) eighty-seven cents
6) a platinum watch-chain
7) false
8) hurried

5) The door opened and Jim stepped in and closed it. He looked thin and very serious. Poor fellow, he was only twenty-two-and he was burdened with a family! He needed a new overcoat and he was without gloves. Jim’s eyes were fixed on Della, and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise. He simply stared at her with a strange expression on his face.

Questions :
i) How did Jim look?
ii) Who was burdened with a family?
iii) What did Jim need?
iv) Where were Jim’s eyes fixed?
v) How was Jim’s expression?
vii) What did Della find in Jim’s expression?
vii) Jim was angry with Della. True or False?
viii) Write the synonym of the word looked from the passage
i) Thin and very serious Jim
ii) Jim
iii) A new overcoat (tod gloves)
iv) On Della
v) It was neither anger, nor surprise, but strange and a combination of emotions.
vi) She could not read or find anything in Jim’s expression.
vii) False
viii) Stared

The Doctor’s Word

6) When the doctor resumed his seat, the patient asked in faintest whisper possible, “Is that someone crying?” The doctor advised, “Don’t exert yourself. You mustn’t talk.” He felt the pulse. It was already agitated by the exertion. The patient asked, “Am I going? Don’t hide it from me.” The doctor made a deprecating noise and sat back in his chair. He had never faced a situation like this. It was not in his nature to whitewash. People attached great value to his word because of that He stole a look at the other. The patient motioned a finger to draw him nearer and whispered, “I must know how long I am going to last. I must sign the will going to last. I must sign the will. It is all ready. Ask my wife for the dispatch box. You must sign as a witness.”

Questions :
i) who was crying?
ii) What was the doctor’s advice to Gopal ?
iii) Why was Gopal’s pulse already agitated ?
iv) “Am I going?” said Gopal. What did he mean by this?
v) What was NOT there in the nature of the doctor? …
vi) I am going to ‘last’. .” Write the part of speech of the word last.
vii) Write the synonym, from the passage, of the word hide.
viii) Write the idiom used in the passage to mean to see somebody quickly so that nobody sees that.
1. Gopal’s wife
3. Because of the exertion
4. If he is going to die …………….
5. To whitewash
6. Verb
7. Whitewash
8. Stole a look

7) Next morning, he was back at Lawley Extension at ten. From ad sat back in his chair his car he made a dash for the sick bed. The patient was this. It was not in his ne awake and looked very well. The assistant reported great value to his word satisfactory pulse. The doctor put his tube at his heart, other. The patient mot so unhappy, lady. Your husband will live to be ninety.” When they were going back to the hospital, the assistant, sitting beside him in the car asked, “Is he going to live, sir?”

“I will bet on it. He will live to be ninety. He has turned corner. How he has survived this attack will be a me all my life,” replied the doctor. “I will bet on it. He will live to be ninety. He has turn comer. How he has survived this attack will be a me all my life,” replied the doctor.

Questions :
i) How was the patient when the doctor visited him following morning?
ii) What did the assistant report?
iii) What did the doctor say to Gopal’s wife?
iv) What would the doctor bet on?
v) What would be a puzzle to the doctor all his life?
vi) Write the idiom used in the passage to mean passed a very important point in an illness and began to improve.
vii) Find out the word used in the passage to mean an act of going somewhere quickly.
viii) The patient was awake… Here the word patient is a noun and it means a sick person. Use the word patient in your own sentence as adjective.
i) The patient was awake and looked very well.
ii) Satisfactory pulse
iii) “Don’t look so unhappy, lady. Your husband will live to be ninety.”
iv) On Gopal living to be ninety.
v) How Gopal has survived that attack
vi) Turned the corner
vii) Dash
viii) Our English teacher is very patient (adj) with us.

Lost

8) This latter circumstance frequently emboldened the stockbroker to me secret overtures to the delightful little lady, overtures which might have fascinated certain Viennese actresses but were an insult to a respectable woman. The baroness, whose name appeared in the Almanac de Gotha felt something very like hatred for the man from the ghetto, and for a long time her pretty little head had been full of various plans of revenge.

Questions :
i) What does the phrase ‘This latter circumstance’ refer to?
ii) Was the lady a Viennese actress?
iii) What were insults to a respectable woman?
iv) “The stockbroker’ and ‘the man from the ghetto’ both are the same. Write true or false.
v) Where did her name appear?
vi) Why did the lady develop hatred for the man?
vii) Find the word from the passage which means different.
viii) Pick the antonym of ugly from the passage
i) It refers to ‘a very modest income’ (poverty) of the married
iii) No overtures (from the baron)
iv) True
v) In the Almanac de Gotha
vi) Because of his insulting overtures
vii) Various
viii) Pretty

9) Next evening the enamoured stockbroker came to the abode on which the price of the charming little baroness and found her alone, lying on the couch, wrapped in dark fur and holding a dog whip in her small hand, which the man from the ghetto kissed: “You know our agreement,” she began. “Of course, I do,” the Stock Exchange baron replied. “I am that? It is a sun to allow you to give me twenty-five cuts with the whip, and h a charmingly after the twenty-fifth you will listen to me.”

Questions :
1. Where did the stockbroker go?
2. Whom did he find ?
3. What did the lady hold in her hand ?
4. The lady was accompanied by her friends. Write true or false.
5. Write the word, from the passage, that means a house.
6. Write the part of speech of the word couch.
7. When would the lady listen to the baron favourably?
8. The man from the ghetto kissed the dog whip. Write Yes or No.
1. To the abode (home) of the charming little baroness
2. Found the baroness
3. A dog whip
4. False
5. Abode
6. Noun
7. He wouldn’t have his wish fulfilled.
8. No. (He kissed her small hand.)

10) “Certainly, but I promised you to grant your wish after the twenty-fifth blow, and you have only received twenty-four,” the cruel little atom of virtue cried, and I have witnesses to prove it.” With these words she drew back the curtains over the door, and her husband, followed by two other gentlemen, came out of the next room, smiling. For a moment the stockbroker remained speechless on his knees before his Delilah; then he gave a deep sigh and sadly uttered that one most significant word: “Lost!”

Questions :
1. What did the lady promise ?
3. Whom does the phrase the cruel little atom of virtue refer to ?
4. Who were the witnesses ?
5. Find the word, from the passage, which means very important.
6. Write the antonym, from the passage, of the word vice.
7. Who does the word Delilah refer to ?
8. Why did the stockbroker remain speechless ?
1. The lady promised to grant the baron his wish.
2. Yes
3. To the baroness (the lady)
4. Her husband and two other gentlemen
5. Significant
6. Virtue
8. As what he expected did not happen – totally unexpected things – her husband and two gentlemen coming there.

An Interview

11) ‘I am not the Dean,’ he explained. ‘I am the medical school Secretary here long before you were born, my boy. Before your fair probably. I remember well enough when the Dean himself came up admitted.’ He removed his glasses and pointed them at me. I’ve seen thousand of students pass through the school. Some of them have turned out on and some of them bad – it’s just like your own children.’ I nodded heartily, as I was anxious to please everyone.

Now, young feller,’ he went on more briskly, ‘I’ve got some questions to ask you.’ I folded my hands submissively and braced myself mentally. ‘Have you been to a public school?’ he asked. ‘Yes.’ ‘Do you play Rugby football or Association?’ ‘Rugby.’ ‘Do you think you can afford to pay the fees?’ ‘Yes.’ He grunted, and without a word withdrew. Left alone, I diverted my apprehensive mind by running my eye carefully over the line of black-and white pictures of past deans, studying each one in turn. After ten minutes or so the old man returned and led me in to see the living holder of the office.

Questions :
1. I am not the Dean, he explained. Who does the word ‘I” refer to ?
2. How long was the Secretary there in the college ?
3. Name the games mentioned in the passage.
4. What was the last question to the speaker ?
5. How did the narrator divert his apprehensive mind?
6. Where did the old man take the narrator?
7. Pick the word, from the passage, which means have enough money to pay.
8. Pick the antonym of slowly from the passage.
1. The Secretary
2. Since the narrator or even his father was not born.
3. Rugby and Association (football).
4. If he could afford to pay the fee
5. By running his eye carefully over the line of black-and-white pictures of past deans
6. Into the office of the Dean
7. Afford.
8. Briskly

12) He frowned at his paper pad for a few seconds. His face suddenly lightened, and I saw he had come to a decision. My hands gripped the arms of the chair as I waited to receive it. Rising, he shook me briskly by the hand and told me he had pleasure in admitting me to St Swithin’s.

I wondered for some time afterwards how he had been able to discover from these questions that I had the attributes of a successful doctor, but I later found out that even this brief interview was superfluous, as the Dean always took the advice of his old secretary and told applicants whose looks this man disliked that there were no vacancies.

Questions :
1. “My hands gripped the arms of the chair…” What does it express?
2. What was the narrator waiting for?
3. What did the Dean do raising from the chair?
4. Why did the narrator wonder?
5. Later he found out something. What was it?
6. Pick the word, from the passage, that means not necessary.
7. How were the applicants selected for admission?
8. Why was the interview superfluous?
1. His tension/anxiety
2. For the result of his interview
3. The Dean shook the narrator briskly by hand and announced that his admission was finalized.
4. Wondered how the interview decided his attributes of successful doctor
5. That the interview was superfluous
6. Superfluous
7. Based on the liking by the Secretary of the looks of the aspirants
8. As the interview was NOT deciding admissions

## TS Inter 1st Year English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 1st Year English Study Material Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages Exercise Questions and Answers.

## TS Inter 1st Year English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Q.No. 7 (4 out of 6 Questions: 4 × 1 = 4 Marks)

EXERCISES

1. Complementing Comprehension

Comprehension is a very comprehensive concept. It covers many aspects. Knowing the mere meaning of the text is but a small part of comprehension. Comprehension includes
(a) decoding the meaning, (b) relating it to what one knows, (c) thinking about it appropriately, (d) responding positively, (e) applying it to real life and (f) remembering it and retrieving it when needed. In that inclusive sense, comprehension forms the very base of any learning- languages, humanities, sciences and most importantly, life’s lessons. Treating comprehension as an examination-linked task is to limit our own progress. Enlightenment, enrichment and enjoyment go hand in hand as one steadily progresses in acquiring comprehension skills !

Questions :
i) Why is comprehension considered comprehensive ?
ii) What is meant by comprehension ?
iii) Write down two important aspects of true comprehension.
iv) What is at the very base of any learning ?
v) According to the passage, what is the most important subject to learn ?
vi) What is comprehension in the opinion of some persons that hampers one’s progress in learning ?
vii) What is the result of steady progress in one’s comprehension skills ?
viii) Write the expression used in the passage to mean together/in coordination.
i) as it covers many aspects.
ii) knowing the meaning of the text
iii) decoding the meaning, remembering it, recollecting it when needed
iv) comprehension
v) life’s lessons
vii) Enlightenment, enrichment and enjoyment go hand in hand.
viii) go hand in hand

2. Opportunities Unlimited

I notice the methodapplied to about six of the wealthiest men in England in a book of interviews published by an able and well-known journalist.
[This is a single sentence with twenty-six words. It is taken from G K Chesterton’s The Worship of the Wealthy]

Questions :
i) Who does the word Irefer to in the passage ?
ii) What did the narrator notice ?
iii) Where did the narrator notice it ?
iv) To whom was that method applied ?
v) Where did those six wealthy persons hail from ?
vi) Which is the book mentioned here ?
vii)Who published that book ?
viii) What is the specialty of that publisher ?
ix) What kind of people find place in the passage ?
x) Write the synonym of popular
xi) Write the other formsof the word able
xii) Can we also calla reporter a journalist ?
xiii) Can you write two or more such words used in that field as journalist?
i) if the speaker
ii) the method applied to
iii) in a book of interviews
iv) to about six of the wealthiest men in England.
v) from England
vi) a book of interviews
vii) a well-known journalist
viii) an able and well-known person
ix) wealthy, famous persons
x) famous/well-known
xi) ably, ability, capable, unable, inability
xii) No, we cannot.
xiii) editor, composer, staffer, reporter, desk

II. GOLDEN TELANGANA SHINING

3. Innovation in Irritation-Kaleswaram

Kaleswaram, the brainchild of Sri K. Chandrashekhar Rao, is considered the world’s
largest multipurpose, multistage lift irrigation project. The other two such projects in the world (one in the USA – Colorado; and the other in Egypt – Great Manmade River) took three decades for their completion. But Kaleswaram Lift Irrigation Project (KLIP) was inaugurated in just three years (on 21 June 2019) after starting work on it in 2016.

With three barrages, 20 lifts and 20 reservoirs, it aims at lifting water to 500 meters height and carrying it to over 500 KMs spanning 13 districts with a canal network crossing 1800 KMs. Built on the Godavari at Kaleswaram in Jayashankar Bhupalpalli district, the project mainly aims to use the till now unused Pranahitha waters near its confluence with the Godavari. The project presently lifts 2TMC (Thousand million cubic feet) water per day. Plans are a foot to increase the capacity to 3TMC a day. It aims at irrigating 37 lakh acres besides meeting the drinking water needs of Hyderabad and other villages, developing water transport and promoting fisheries and tourism.

Questions :
i ) Why is Kaleswaram called a multipurpose project ?
ii) Support the statement that KLIP is a multistage project.
iii) What is the difference between KLIP and the other such projects in the world ?
iv) Name the river that provides water to KLIP
v) To what height is water lifted from the beginning to the final point ?
vi) What is the irrigation potential of KLIP in acres ?
vii) Expand TMC.
viii) Give the location of KLIP
i) as it irrigates, supplies drinking water, develops water transport, promotes fisheries and tourism.
ii) as it consists of three barrages, twenty lifts and twenty reservoirs.
iii) KLIP was inaugurated in three years after the work started on it while the two other such projects took three decades for their completion.
iv) the Pranahitha and the Godavari
v) 500 meters high
vi) 37 lakh acres
vii) Thousand million cubic feet
viii) Kaleswaram in Jayashankar Bhupalpalli district

4. Loving Warriors

Love is gravity, for it makes some attached to others (including animals). Pradeep Nair and Santhosi-made for each other Hyderabad couple-belong to that rarest category, attached to others. These Heroes of Hyderabad have so far rescued seventy thousand distressed animals! They foster disabled animals too. Initiated indirectly into this mission by their parents, they started their love saga 14 years ago. With registration in 2019, their 25+ active, skilled team is now officially Animal Warriors Conservation Society.

They coordinate with other NGOs, Fire, Forest and Zoo officials in wildlife conservation and activities like lake cleaning and manza cleaning. Despite resources crunch, they go ahead with their mission. Sensitive souls, intelligent minds and skilled hands are their invaluable resources. Their determined will has moved our IT Minister, KT Rama Rao into the rarest gesture of extending a furtd of rupees 10 Lakh. Crying wildlife appeals to all to strengthen their caring hands by sharing their mission of animal protection, wildlife conservation and awareness promotion.

Questions :
i) When we read about Pradeep Nair and Santhosi we think of the great saying, Love is gravity. Explain in a sentence how.
ii) Who prompted them to love animals ?
iii) What are the three goals that constitute their mission ?
iv) Who do they coordinate with in their wildlife conservation ?
v) Name the organization that got an official status in 2019.
vi) What moved the IT Minister to show the rarest gesture ?
vii) What is the appeal of crying wildlife ?
viii) Pick out the synonym of preservation from the passage.
i) as they are attached to others, including animals
ii) their parents
iii) wildlife conservation, lake cleaning and manza cleaning
iv) with other NGOs, Fire, Forest and Zoo officials vf Animal Warriors Conservation Society
vi) their determined will
vii) to strengthen their caring hands by sharing their mission,
viii) conservation

5. Swatch Badi – Clean Telanoana – Second Only to One ?

The second Swatch Badi (the first one in India being in Bengaluru) was recently inaugurated by the Finance Minister T. Harish Rao in Siddipeta. Here, the faculty will teach how to collect garbage, segregate dry, wet and harmful garbage, take care of public health, avoid plastic and produce compost from garbage at homes. Dr. Prashanti from Bengaluru will supervise the activities at this learning centre. Children or elders, anyone can enroll here 7 for the course. Focus is on educating school-children, DWCRA [Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas] women and leaders. Teaching here is carried on in the digital form, actual demos and power point presentations. Compost generated thus can be used as manure. Spreading the concept all around is the need of the hour !

Questions :
i) Where does the first Swatch Badi in India function ?
ii) Swatch Badi in Siddipeta is the first of that kind in Telangana. Say true or false.
iii) Name the three types of garbage mentioned in the passage.
iv) Who looks after the functioning of this school ?
v) Who can join this school ?
vi) Mention the three teaching methods used here.
vii) How can the compost produced here be used ?
viii) Is it enough for Telangana to have this one school ?
i) in Bengaluru
ii) true
iii) dry, wet and harmful
iv) Dr. Prashanthi from Bengaluru
v) Children or elders (anyone)
vi) digital form, actual demos and power point presentations
vii) as manure
viii) No. Spreading the concept all around is the need of the hour !

6. Initiative an INCH-Inspiration in TONS

An iota of initiative can ignite inspiration in tons, capable of moving mountains at a rapid pace. Sounds incredible ? See it happen in our golden Telangana right now. Miracles become common when the initiative comes from a man with integrity, good intentions and unconditional love for others. Other worth emulating traits of his sterling personality are : (a) simple living and high thinking; (b) love for truth; (c) discipline;
(d) practising before preaching; (e) democratic to the core and (f) working for common cause. His quest for truth is visible in his forty-year oldSatyanveshana Mandali.

His belief that individual progress and social progress are inseparable has prompted him to work for the development of a model town involving hundreds of committed persons from all walks of life, including spiritual areas. He is Surendra Babu Putta, 71. and the fortunate town witnessing his impact is Kodada, the Gateway of Telangana. His very lifestyle offers innumerable lessons on integrated personality development to the interested. Think, think, think-this is his mantra.

Questions :
i) How is the value of initiative highlighted in the passage ?
ii) Does the initiative from any kind of person have the same impact ?
iii) The initiative from what kind of persons can make miracles the order of the day ?
iv) Name three traits of the lead character’s personality.
v) Is it usual to have all such positive traits in persons around us ?
vi) What is the objective of the forty-year old organization mentioned in the passage ?
vii) Name the person impacting and the place being impacted.
viii) What kind of lessons can we learn from his way of living ?
i) An iota of initiative can ignite inspiration in tons, capable of moving mountains at a rapid pace.
ii) No.
iii) from persons with integrity, good intentions and unconditional love for others.
iv) a) simple living and high thinking; b) love for truth and c) discipline
v) No, not usual
vi) Satyanveshana Mandali pursues the objective of quest for truth.
vii) Surendra Babu Putta; Kodada, the Gateway of Telangana
viii) lessons in integrated personality development

7. Save Girl Child ! n Save Mankind !

Gender bias is a global problem. Its intensity in India is intriguing for reasons both obscure and obvious. Yet, at times we see brilliant rays of hope emanating from unexpected quarters. An instance of this is an inspiring move initiated at Haridaspur village of Kondapur Mandal, Sangareddy district by the Sarpanch, Shafi to save girl children and to encourage their education. Proving that good manners too are infectious, the movement started spreading fast, for and wide. In just a year of its beginning, a handful of villages have already started following the example.

Inspired by this movement, Yeddumailaram village (Kandi Mandal) has set a record by opening Sukanya Samruddhi Yojana (SSY) accounts for 72 girl children on a single day. Opening such accounts, planting trees, honouring the mothers of girl children, encouraging girl education etc., are the main moves in this direction. Public representatives, doctors, press and officials have been actively encouraging such persons. Pride of place is credited to Intermediate Education as its personnel, particularly a Principal, have been playing an active role for long by promoting crucial awareness and raising funds, even from NRIs ! May their tribe multiply !

Questions :
i) What is the issue that is regarded as universal in this passage ?
ii) Is India in a better position in this connection than other countries ?
iii) How has Haridaspur set an example in eliminating gender bias ?
iv) What makes the narrator say that good manners are infectious ?
v) List the main moves initiated in the Save Girl Child Campaign.
vi) What kind of role is being played by the personnel from Intermediate Education ?
vii) Write the part of speech of the word personnel.
viii) Give the synonym for the word essential from the passage.
i) gender bias
ii) No, it is not in a better position.
iii) by saving girl children, encouraging their education, honouring mothers of girl children etc.
iv) as this movement started to spread fast, far and wide
v) opening SSY accounts, planting trees, honouring mothers of girl children and encouraging girl education
vi) an active role in promoting crucial awareness and raising funds
vii) noun
viii) crucial

8. WOMEN at CENTRE-WELFARE in PROGRESS

A woman is a full circle. Within her is the power to create, nurture and transform, goes a glorious compliment, highlighting woman’s power. Then, if many women are at the helm of a village, can you imagine the degree of transformation ? A lively example is unfolding itself at Madhavaram village of Suryapet district. With the initiative from the sons of the soil like Sri Koti Reddy, Superintendent of Police, Ram Sudheer, School Assistant (Teacher), the entire village Panchayat was unanimously occupied by an all-women team.

Besides, women’s committees were formed for each important village development activity like education, health, drinking water and sanitation. Ms Vijayalakshmi, Sarpanch and Ms Janakamma, Vice-Sarpanch were all smiles when asked about their achievements in a short span of time. The long list includes a library, purified water, a gymnasium, English Medium Sections in ZP School, greenery etc. Their honesty in admitting that their move towards prohibition of liquor still awaits results stuns everyone. The village serves as a model, showcasing women’s power.

Questions ;
i) Frailty, thy name is woman, says Shakespeare. But, what does this passage say in this regard ? (Frailty means weakness-)
ii) Mention the unique feature of Madhavaram’s present panchayat.
iii) What do other all-women committees have for their function ?
iv) Why were the Sarpanch and Vice-Sarpanch all smiles ?
v) Which particular area still awaits satisfactory progress ?
vi) What does the village seek to showcase ?
vii) Who initiated the village development activities ?
viii) Write the expression from the passage used to mean jn the charge of-
i) power, thy name is woman.
ii) It is occupied by an all-women team.
iii) education, health, drinking water, sanitation, etc.
iv) as they recorded many achievements in a short span of time
v) the prohibition of liquor
vi) women’s power
vii) Sri Koti Reddy, SP and Sri Ram Sudheer, teacher
viii) at the helm

III. LESSONS FROM ROOTS

9. Mistakes can Make Miracles

Mistakes at times can turn out to be a blessing in disguise. One such error led to the establishment of the Nobel Prize, the most coveted award in the world. When Ludwig (Alfred’s brother) died in 1888, a French newspaper erroneously confused the deceased’s identity with that of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite that brought him enormous money. As a result, it published a scathing obituary entitled The Merchant of Death is Dead. Alfred thus had the rarest opportunity of reading his own death report (obituary). His troubled conscience said to himself, “Is this how posterity is going to remember me ? No, I must do something. The huge fortune I made must go to promote peace in this world. “What followed is history. Nobel prizes in Peace, Literature, Physics, Chemistry and Biology/Medicine were thus born !

Questions :
i) What was the error that led to the establishment of the Nobel Prize ?
ii) How did the French paper describe Alfred Nobel ?
iii) Who died in 1888 ?
iv) What was the rarest opportunity Alfred Nobel had ?
v) How did Nobel try to change his image ?
vi) Write the word used in the passage to mean death report.
vii) Give the antonym, from the passage, of appreciative.
viii) What is the difference, in terms of grammar, between the words death and dead ?
i) confused the deceased’s identity with that of Alfred Nobel
ii) as the Merchant of Death
iii) Ludwig Nobel, Alfred’s brother
iv) to read his own death report
v) by trying to promote peace in the world and by establishing the Nobel Prize.
vi) obituary
vii) scathing

10. Forget and Forgive-Live Life

Man gets and forgets : God gives and forgives; thus goes a saying. Once, a godlike four-year-old child showed the way. The girl was at the dining table, listening intently to her father admonishing her. When he took a long pause, she asked politely, “Dad, if you have finished, may I say something ?” Even while being scolded, she maintained her poise. Her patient listening and her poise teach us life’s lessons as well, or even better than the scriptures do. Think of any adult in that situation and the probable response. Can anyone be anywhere near that girl in her attitude ? We all like to be liked, no doubt. But can we order fond feelings from others ? Patience, forgiveness, love etc are some valuable qualities that help us live in peace, be liked and more importantly, help us give and yet forgive others-a sure way to spread true happiness all around.

Questions :
i) What are the attributes of man, according to the saying ?
ii) What was the girl doing while her father was scolding her ?
iii) What qualities in that girl teach us life’s lessons ?
iv) According to the passage, there are many adults like that girl. Say true or false
v) Does the writer say that fond feelings can be ordered from others ?
vi) Write is the sure way for spreading happiness all around ?
vii) Write the synonym of the word scolding.
viii) Write the antonym of the word inattentively.
i) Man gets and forgets.
ii) She was at, the dining table, listening to her father intently.
iii) her poise and patient listening
iv) false
v) No, they cannot be ordered from others.
vi) to have patience, love, forgiveness etc., that help us live in peace, be liked and give and yet forgive.
viii) intently

IV. WOMAN EMPOWERMENT

11. A .Queen’s Wisdom

Layla, the wise queen once ruled Arabia. Her wisdom illuminated the land like the Sun. In beauty and wealth she had peers none. All the seven regions under her control enjoyed peace and prosperity, courtesy, her able and wise rule. Yet, people were not content. They used to say some unpleasant things against the queen. When the Chief Advisor wanted to know the reason for this, the queen smiled and said, “I can do almost everything I wish. I can order the frontiers to be closed; the gates of the palace to be locked and so on. But one thing I cannot do : make the people shut their mouths. It matters not what false things people say; what counts more is to continue to do which I consider to be true!”

Questions :
i) What is queen Layla famous for ?
ii) How was it that all those seven regions enjoyed peace and prosperity ?
iii) What did the Chief Advisor want to know ?
iv) What was the one thing that the queen was unable to do ?
v) Was the queen worried as she couldn’t do that ?
vi) Why was the queen not bothered by the unpleasant things people said ?
vii) What really matters most, according to the queen ?
viii) Give the antonym of the word adversity.
i) for her wisdom, beauty, wealth
ii) due to her able and wise rule
iii) the reason for people saying some unpleasant things against the queen despite her able and wise rule
iv) to make the people shut their mouths
v) no, not worried
vi) because she knew well that what false things people say mattered not much
vii) to continue to do which she considered to be true
viii) prosperity

12. Charity Boundless

Live only to serve, to serve food seemed to be the motto that guided Ms. Dokka Seetamma all through her life. Popular as Apara Annapoorna, Ms Dokka Seetamma was born in October 1841 at Mandapeta of East Godavari District. Her father, Mr Bhavani Sankaram offered food to anyone who came to them hungry. Seetamma’s mother died when she was just six. And Seetamma had to shoulder her mother’s responsibility of serving food to the needy. Thus started habit of cooking and serving food lasted for four-plus decades. Even after her marriage to Dokka Joganna and her moving to Lankala Gannavaram, she didn’t do anything else except cooking and serving food. King Edward VII honoured her for her philanthropy by placing her photograph at a function. An aqueduct on the Godavari was named after her. And her statue finds a place in Vivekananda Park in Kakinada.

Questions :
i) What is the motto that guided Ms. Dokka Seetamma all through her life ?
ii) Where was Ms. Seetamma born ?
iii) Why did she start serving food since the time she was six ?
iv) How long did she continue in her mission of serving food ?
v) List the honours she enjoyed.
vi) What is her other popular name ?
vii) Write the idiom used in the passage to mean to take up the work,
viii) Write the part of speech of the word philanthropy.
i) “Live only to serve, to serve food.
ii) at Mandapeta of East Godavari district
iii) as her mother died when she was six
iv) to more than four decades
v) King Edward VII placing her photograph at a function, an aqueduct on the Godavari after her name, her statue in Vivekananda Park in Kakinada
vi) Apara Annapoorna
vii) shoulder the responsibility
viii) philanthropy-noun

V. VARIETY IN CREATIVITY

13. A Modern Marvel Taking Shape on Out Soil at Sangareddy

Can you conceive of a construction without cement and steel ? Unimaginable ? But, a modern marvel-a 32 foot high Sri Chakra shaped temple is taking shape on a sprawling one and a half acre site with just natural elements like lime, jaggery, jute, gum, myrobalan fruit (karakkaya) paste, Indian bael (Maredu/Bilwa) juice, sand and stone (15 lakh pieces, some weighing 5 tons each). With Lord Shiva as the presiding deity, this Sri Kailasa Prastara Mahameru (human body) Panchamukha Umamaheswara Devasthanam, at Phasalvadi village, near Sangareddy, is being devised, planned and executed by jyothirvaasthu Vidyapeetham.

Modelled after ancient temples like Konark, Hampi, this 20 crore rupee mammoth miracle is expected to have a life of 6,000 years, says Maheswara Siddhanthi, the man behind this project. Hundreds of expert engineers, skilled sculptors, eminent architects and famous artisans have been toiling since day one i.e., 14 June 2017 and are determined to complete it at the earliest. With concepts from epics as its fountain of inspiration, this temple looks certain to flourish as a spiritual centre with unique architectural features !

Questions :
i) Mention the unique feature of this temple in terms of construction materials used.
ii) Which organization is executing the work of this temple ?
iii) Where is this temple located ?
iv) Without using cement and steel, can the structure last long ? Support your answer with a sentence from the passage.
v) Name the temples that were studied to design this temple.
vi) Who is supervising this major project ?
vii) Write the synonym of the word famous.
viii) When did the actual construction work start on this project ?
i) Without using steel and cement, it uses only natural elements like lime, jaggery, jute, gum.
ii) Jyothirvaasthu Vidyapeetam
iv) Yes. It is expected to have a life of 6,000 years.
v) Konark, Hampi temples
vi) Maheswara Siddhanthi
vii) eminent
viii) on 14 June 2017

14. No Stops Barred

‘Go’ is the single-worded, shortest sentence. What could, then, be the longest sentence ? How many words ? Try guessing. The longest sentence has four lakh plus words. Yes, It’s a thousand-page novel titled Ducks, Newburyport, conceived and composed by Lucy Ellman. This thousand page novel won this year’s (2020) 10,000 pound Goldsmith’s Prize, for breaking the mould and extending the novel’s form. “It’s a massive achievement,”
exclaimed a judge. “This gripping, hypnotic novel remakes the novel ” extolled another judge. The ambitious form of the novel initially invited rejections till Galley Beggar finally published it. The novel is in the form of an internal monologue of a mother in Ohio as she bakes pies in her kitchen. According to the writer, this one long run-on sentence book makes its readers float around to sink or swim, engulfed in one woman’s thought.

Questions :
i) How many words are there in the longest sentence ?
ii) Who -composed that sentence and in’Which form ?
iii) What do.es, that sentence,deal with (its content) ?
iv) How was that longest sentence honoured in the year of publication ?
v) Reproduce the comments on the book by two judges.
vi) Why was the book initially rejected by the publishers ?
vii) “This one long run-on sentence book makes its readers .” What does it make its readers ?
i) four lakh plus words
ii) Lucy Ellman, in the form of a novel
iii) It deals with the thoughts of a mother in Ohio as she bakes pies in her kitchen.
iv) honoured with 2020 Goldsmith’s Prize with 10,000 pound cash
v) i) It’s a massive achievement
ii This gripping, hypnotic novel remakes the novel….
vi) because of its ambitious form
vii) float around to sink or swim, engulfed in one woman’s thought
viii) for breaking the mould and extending the novel’s form

VI. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

15. Rags-to-writer n the Saga of Laxman Rao

India’s Capital is a home to a famous Chaiwala. A darling of the press, feted by numerous organizations and no stranger to the highest echelons of political affair, Laxman Rao led a storied life. It wasn’t his brews but his books that catapulted him into fame, and even into Teen Murthi House, where Indira Gandhi hosted him in 1984. Now the writer of twenty-five Hindi books-novels and plays-he has received awards from NGOs and literary associations and been covered more than one hundred times in print and digital media. All the while, until Delhi went into lockdown, you could still walk up to a tea stall on Vishnu Digamber Marg and treat yourself to a cup of tea from this celebrated author!

Questions :
i) Where does this famous Chaiwala, Laxman Rao, live ?
ii) What does the expression ‘no stranger to the highest echelons of political office’ mean?
iii) What catapulted Laxman Rao into fame ?
iv) Mention the medium that made Laxman Rao familiar to many.
v) What quality of Laxman Rao strikes you the most as you treat yourself with a cup of tea he made and sold to you ?
vi) Write the word used in the passage to mean much talked or written about
vii) What is the word used in the passage to mean a number of
viii) Write the synonym of honoured
i) in Delhi
ii) known to (not stranger) many persons in highest positions (echelons levels of authority)
iii) his books
iv) Yes,.he is known to many. His books made him popular. Media gave wide publicity to his books.
v) his status as a celebrated author
vi) storied
vii) numerous
viii) feted

16. Determined to live and Write

Deprivation has driven the determined Manoranjan Byapari to dare even destiny with his pointed questions. Born as a poor, neglected and hard-working labourer with hunger as his twin brother, Manoranjan Byapari turned out to be an award-winning writer. With nearly twenty books in Bengali to his credit, including his latest work, Chandal Jibon (Bengali Title-semi autobiographical)-most of them translated into English and other languages-he received many awards-notable among them being West Bengal Sahitya Academy’s and The Hindu Award for non-fiction.

“I write because I cannot kill,” said Byapari once, adding, “The indomitable will to live keeps me alive even today despite odds like discrimination in dozens I face every day.” He started learning the letters of the alphabet when he was in prison, for no fault of his. Once riding Byapari’s rickshaw and noticing his innate talent to narrate, Maha Swetha Devi invited Byapari to write for her magazine, Bartikal. Thus, a great writer was bom, rather accidentally ! And now he is elected as an MLA from the Balagarh constituency (West Bengal) in May, 2021.

Questions :
i) What drove Manoranjan Byapari to challenge even destiny ?
ii) How has this hard-working poor labourer become popular ?
iii) Name his latest work.
iv) Mention some important honour he received.
v) Why does he write, according to himself ?
vi) Manoranjan Byapari had formal education like an ordinary boy. Say true to false.
vii) What keeps him alive despite odds in dozens he faces even today ?
viii) How did Maha Swetha Devi help the writer in Byapari take birth ?
i) deprivation
ii) as a celebrated writer, through his award-winning books
iii) Chandal Jibon (Bengali title-semi autobiographical)
iv) West Bengal Sahitya Academy Award, The Hindu Award for non-fiction
v) “I write because I cannot kill.”
vi) false
vii) the indomitable will to live
viii) by inviting him to write for her magazine, Bartikal

17. Worshipping Heroes

Here are two unique novels – Pharaoh and the King and The Victorian-that made two heroes fans of their writer. The heroes are Chiranjeevi and Hrithik Roshan. And their writer is Dasari Venkata Vishwanath. But the reason ? Their writer is a visually challenged, Telugu Medium student who started writing his first English novel when he was just 11 (2004). Nystagmus or photophobia is the disease that disables him from focusing his sight on any object for more than a second.

Born into a farmer’s family of Gokavaram in East Godavari district, the boy was inspired by JK Rowling. Helped by his English teacher Buchibapayya and younger sister Sija, Venkat worked hard for seven years to complete his first novel in 2011, which was launched by Chiranjeevi. After that, another five years of dedicated work and the second masterpiece was out in 2016. Venkat dedicated it to his favourite hero Hrithik Roshan. That made the hero Venkat’s fan and he invited Venkat to his birthday party as a special guest. Thus, he won the hearts of two heroes, besides those of millions of readers the world over.

Questions :
i) What is unique about the two novels, according to the passage ?
ii) Who are the heroes who turned fans of that writer ?
iii) How does the disease, Nystagmus impact Venkata Vishwanath ?
iv) Name the three persons who helped, directly or indirectly, Venkata Vishwanath in writing his first novel ?
v) How long did Venkata Vishwanath take to write those two novels ?
vi) What made Hrithik Roshan a fan of Venkata Vishwanath ?
vii) How did Hrithik Roshan a fan of Venkata Vishwanath ?
viii) Visual challenges or Telugu Medium background failed to stop Venkata Vishwanath from daring to dream and succeeding. Say true or false-
i) that made two heroes fans of their writer
ii) Chiranjeevi and Hrithik Roshan
iii) disables him from focusing his sight on any object for more than a second.
iv) JK Rowling, his English teacher Buchibapayya and his younger sister Sija
v) twelve (7 + 5) years
vi) Venkat dedicating his second novel, The Victorian, to Hrithik Roshan
vii) by inviting Venkat to his birthday party as a special guest
viii) true

VII. WIT AND HUMOUR

18. Strange Lawyer

A lawyer named Strange died, and his friend asked the tombstone maker to inscribe on his tombstone, Here lies Strange, an honest man and a lawyer. The inscriber insisted that such an inscription would be confusing, for passersby would tend to think that three men were buried under the stone. However, he suggested an alternative. He would inscribe, Here lies a man who was both an honest man and a lawyer. That way, whenever anyone walked by the tombstone and read it, they would be certain to remark, That’s strange !

Questions :
i) What was initially planned to be inscribed on the tombstone of Strange, the lawyer ?
ii) How would that inscription confuse the passersby, according to the inscriber ?
iii) Who suggested the alternative inscription ?
iv) Did the new inscription carry the name of the dead lawyer ?
v) How would the passersby know the name of the dead man, without it being on the tombstone ?
vi) What is strange (note the smalls) according to the passage ?
vii) Write the Parts of Speech of the words inscribe, inscription, inscriber.
viii) Write the word used in the passage that means misleading.
i) “Here lies Strange, an honest man and a lawyer.”
ii) Passersby would tend to think that three men were buried under the stone.
iii) the inscriber
iv) No
v) by looking at the new inscription, “Here lies a man who was both an honest man and a lawyer”, passersby would surely remark, ‘That’s strange!”
vi) A lawyer being an honest man is strange, according to the passage.
vii) inscribe-verb; inscription-noun (refers to an action); inscriber-noun (refers to a person)
viii) confusing

19. Albert Einstein : Humour. Humanity. Humility

Albert Einstein, the Nobel laureate, was a simple man to whom success, fame and wealth meant nothing. On being appointed the Dean of a University and asked to give his requirements, his demand was for a wastepaper basket. To the stunned person, his cool , v response was, “I commit mistakes, you know.”Humility underlined his simplicity. His simplicity extended to his love for children; he believed that the hope of the world lies in viV- children. His excellent sense of humour helped him to brighten every situation. Asked for a mathematical formula for success in life, he gave, “A = X + Y + Z”, where A = success, X = work and Y = play”. “What is Z ?” was the question. “Keeping your mouth shut,” was Einstein’s response! Everybody talks about him but nobody understands him because he is more of a phenomenon and not just a man.

Questions :
i) What mattered little to Albert Einstein ?
ii) Why did Einstein ask for just a wastepaper basket as a Dean ?
iii) Which quality made his simplicity conspicious ?
iv) What was his belief about children ?
v) How did Einstein’ sense of humour help him ?
vi) What is Einstein’s formula for success in life ?
vii) Why don’t people understand Einstein ?
viii) Give thenoun form ofsimple as found in the passage.
i) success, fame and wealth
ii) because he would commit mistakes
iii) humility
iv) “.World’s hope lies in children”.
v) to brighten every situation
vi) A = X + Y + Z (A → success; X → work; Y → play; Z → shut up your mouth)
vii) because he is more of a phenomenon than a man
viii) simplicity

VIII. HEALTH SCENARIO

20. Prime Minister Modi on YOGA

Yoga is an invaluable gift of ancient Indian tradition it embodies unity of mind and body; thought and action; restraint and fulfillment; harmony between man and nature, and a holistic approach to health and well-being. Yoga is not about exercise but to discover the sense of oneness with ourselves, the world and Nature. By changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness, it can help us to deal with climate change. Let us work towards adopting the international Yoga Day.

Questions :
i) Whose gift is Yoga according to the passage ?
ii) Yoga brings about unity between ………….. and ……………. and …………….. ; ……………… and ……………… , …………… Fill in the blanks.
iii) What does Yoga help us to discover ?
iv) How can Yoga help us to deal with climate change ?
v) Is Yoga about physical exercise alone ?
vi) Give the antonym of modern.
vii) Give the verb(present) form of thought(n/v.pt).
viii) Find the word from the passage that means agreement
ii) mind, body; thought, action; restraint, fulfillment
iii) the sense of oneness with ourselves, the world and Nature
iv) by changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness
v) No.
vi) ancient
vii) think
viii) harmony

21. Keen Going n COV1D – 19 Taught Lessons !

Nagaland is an excellent example of how communities rise to the occasion. How ? The COVID -19 induced lockdown had convinced them about the importance of self – reliance. As their wage – earning jobs were lost, they resumed farming. And they say they have learnt a lot. With smiles on their faces they say it is a personal rediscovery, going back to nature, cultivating their own food. Food is at the core of our community life they add with pride. And, they have been expanding their farming. Love thy neighbour the community’s philosophy. As the lockdown pushed some into poverty, people have supported those in need. Even Churches began serving meals to the underprivileged. Discovering in difficulties, opportunities to live and let live, that too, joyfully is what the Nagas do and show !

Questions :
i) What did Naga communities understand after Covid induced lockdown ?
ii) What did they resume and why ?
iii) What have they felt about resuming farming ?
iv) What is their community’s philosophy ?
v) How have they practised that philosophy ?
vi) What are the Nagas doing and showing all others ?
vii) Write thesynonym , from the passage, ofcentre .
viii) According to the passage, COVID-19 helped more than it harmed them. Saytrue or false .
i) the importance of self-reliance
ii) resumed farming as they lost their wage-earning jobs
iii) They have felt it is a personal rediscovery, going back to nature and cultivating their own • food.
iv) “Love thy neighbour.”
v) by supporting those in need
vi) discovering in difficulties, opportunities to live and let live
vii) core
viii) true

22. Virus Vs Fear

There is NO virus in this world more dangerous than Fear. Understand this fear; otherwise, you will become a dead body before your body dies. It has nothing to do with the virus. The scary atmosphere you feel in these moments is collective madness… It has happened a thousand times and will continue to happen. You usually keep your feat at bay, but in the moment of collective madness, your consciousness can be completely lost. You won’t even know when you lost control of your fear.

Then fear can make you do anything. In such a situation, you can also take your own life or the lives of others. Attention, be mindful. Don’t watch news that triggers fear. Stop talking about the epidemic, repeating the same thing is like self-hypnosis. Fear is a kind of self-hypnosis. This idea will cause chemical changes in the body. During an epidemic, the energy around the world becomes irrational. This way, you can fall into a black hole anytime. Meditation then becomes a protective aura into which no negative energy can penetrate.

Questions :
i) What, according to the narrator, is more dangerous than the virus ?
ii) What happens if one doesn’t understand this fear ?
iii) Does this happen every time ?
iv) What is lost when collective madness prevails in us ?
v) What is the warning given by the narrator ?
vi) It is ADVISABLE to discuss the EPIDEMIC ?
vii) What happens when one gets this idea (fear) ?
viii) How can we remove our negative tendency ?
i) Fear is more dangerous than virus.
ii) One will become a dead body before one’s body dies.
iii) Yes, it happens every time.
iv) our consciousness
v) The warning is : Don’t watch news that triggers fear. Stop talking about the epidemic.
vii) The idea will cause chemical changes in the body.
viii) through meditation

IX. SCIENTIFIC CULTURE

23. On Srinivasa Ramanujam

Mathematics in Indiainevitably makes one think of one extraordinary figure of recent times. This is Srinivasa Ramanujam.Born into a poor Brahmin family in South India, having no opportunities for a proper education, he became a clerk in the Madras Port Trust. But he was bubbling with some irrepressible quality of instinctive genius and played about with numbers and equations in his spare time. By a lucky chance he attracted the attention of a mathematician who sent some of his amateur work to Cambridge in England.

People there were impressed and a scholarship was arranged for him. So he left his clerk’s job and went to Cambridge and during a very brief period there did work of profound value and amazing originality. The Royal Society of England went rather out of their way and made him a Fellow, but he died two years later, probably of tuberculosis, at the age of thirty three. Professor Julian Huxley has, I believe, referred to him as the greatest mathematician of the century. [ From The Discovery on India]

Questions :
i) What makes one think highly of Srinivasa Ramanujam ?
ii) Why did Ramanujam become a clerk ?
iii) What was Ramanujam doing whenever he found some free time ?
iv) What helped Ramanujam to go to Cambridge ?
v) What did people at Cambridge do for Ramanujam ?
vi) Describe the work Ramanujam did at Cambridge.
vii) ffow did the Royal Society of England honour Ramanujam ?
viii) What is the compliment Professor Julian Huxley extended tc Ramanujam ?
i) Mathematics makes one think of Ramanujam.
ii) because of their poverty and as a result of it, having no opportunities for proper education
iii) played about with numbers and equations
iv) a rnathematician sending his work to Cambridge
v) They arranged a scholarship for him.
vi) work of profound value and amazing originality
vii) honoured Ramanujam by making him a Fellow of the Society
viii) that Ramanujam is the greatest mathematician of the century

24. The Best Award to a TEACHER

Nobel Laureate Sir Chandrashekhar Venkata Raman was among the first three recipients (the other two being Chakravarthi Rajagopala Chary and Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan) of the title Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India in 1954. The then President, Rajendra Prasad, wrote personally to Raman inviting him to be the personal guest in the Rashtrapathi Bhavan, when Raman came to Delhi for the award ceremony. Raman wrote a polite letter regretting his inability to attend the investiture ceremony. He had a noble reason. He had to be by the side of his Ph.D. student as the scholar was trying hard to finalize his Ph.D. thesis before the deadline. “Can there be a better award to a teacher than being by the side of a needy student ?” seems to be Raman’s message to us all!

Questions :
i) Name the highest civilian honour in India.
ii) When was that award conferred on Sir C.V. Raman ?
iii) Who were the other two recipients of the award, along with Sir C.V. Raman ?
iv) What was Rajendra Prasad’s offer to Raman ?
v) Why didn’t Raman attend the award ceremony ?
vi) What appears to be Raman’s message, by not attending the ceremony ?
vii) What is the word used in the passage to mean formal presentation ?
viii) Find the synonym of the word appears from the passage.
i) The Bharat Ratna
ii) in 1954
iii) Chakravarthi Rajagopala Chary and Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
iv) an invitation to Raman to be his personal guest in Rashtrapathi Bhavan
v) As Raman wanted to be by the side of his Ph.D student, as the scholar was busy finalising his Ph.D thesis
vi) “Can there be a better award to a teacher than being by the side of a needy student ?”
vii) investiture
viii) seems

25. On Tagore and Gandhi

Tagore and Gandhi have undoubtedly been the two outstanding and dominating figures of India in the first half of the twentieth century. It is instructive to compare and contrast them. No two persons could be so different from each other in their make-up or temperaments. Tagore, the aristocratic artist, turned democrat with proletarian sympathies, represented essentially the cultural tradition of India, the tradition of accepting life in the fullness thereof and going through it with song and dance.

Gandhi, more a man of the people, almost the embodiment of the Indian peasant, represented the other ancient tradition of India, that of renunciation and asceticism. And yet Tagore was primarily the man of thought, Gandhi of concentrated and ceaseless activity. Both, in their different ways, had a world outlook, and both were at the same time wholly Indian. They seemed to present different but harmonious aspects of India and to complement each other. [From The Discovery on India]

Questions :
i) How is it useful to compare and contrast Gandhiji and Tagore ?
ii) What is common to both-Tagore and Gandhiji ?
iii) Tagore was primarily the man of thought. As opposed to Tagore in this respect, how was Gandhiji ?
iv) What did Tagore essentially represent ?
v) Gandhiji represented ancient tradition. Which aspect of it did Gandhiji represent ?
vi) Did the differences in their make-up or temperaments (of Gandhiji and Tagore) lead to any friction between their relations ?
vii) ” …………… and to complement each other …………..” complement means …………….. Fill in the blank.
a) congratulations
b) appreciation
c) complete
d) appreciate
viii) Write from the passage the antonym of the word dictator.
i) It is instructive to compare and contrast Gandhiji and Tagore.
ii) Both of them were two outstanding and dominating figures of India and both had a world outlook and both were wholly Indian.
iii) Gandhiji was a man of concentrated and ceaseless activity.
iv) the cultural tradition of India
v) of renunciation and asceticism
vi) No, they didn’t lead to any friction
vii) (c) complete
viii) democrat

X. SOCIAL MILIEU

26. GHOTUL – a Model Tribal School

The best known of these indigenous institutions is the Ghotul in Bastar, where older Muria Gond children educate youngsters through a work-play continuum and a sophisticated etiquette of passing on knowledge orally. Children learn countless skills while sharing myths, riddles, songs, dances and ethics based on values of sharing rather than competition. Similar Institutions such as Dhumkuria and Dangribasa exist in Jharkhand and Odisha.

Questions :
i) Where is Ghotul, the tribal school ?
ii) Who are the teachers in that school ?
iii) What is the main mode of teaching there ?
iv) What sophisticated procedure is followed there ?
v) Are there any other institutions of this type ? If so, where are they ?
vi) What are the names of the institutions of this type ?
vii) What does the passage discuss ?
viii) Write the word used in the passage that means a set of customs, practices followed to be polite.
i) in Bastar
ii) Older children teach.
iii) passing on knowledge orally
iv) a sophisticated etiquette of passing on knowledge orally
v) Yes, there are, in Jharkhand and Odisha.
vi) Dhumkuria and Dangribasa
vii) The passage discusses indigenous institutions and their teaching methods.
viii) etiquette

27. The Secret Under Ground

Nature is the best teacher. Redwood trees share a secret. They are the largest trees on the planet. Some of them are even of thousands of years old. But, interestingly, their roots do not grow deep. Yet, they endure massive wind storms, devastating earthquakes etc., for centuries. How is it possible ? The secret of redwood trees lies under the ground. Their roots reach outward seeking the roots of other redwood trees. When they meet, they intertwine, making a permanent bond with one another. This way, all the redwood trees support one another. Unity is strength. Thus, they give humanity a crucial lesson : when you receive, you make a living; but when you give, you make a life !

Questions :
i) Regarding size, what is unique about redwood trees ?
ii) How long do redwood trees live ?
iii) What is the interesting feature of redwood trees ?
iv) What is the secret of redwood trees lying under the ground ?
v) How do all redwood trees support one another ?
vi) What is the crucial lesson redwood trees teach humanity ?
vii) Write the antonym, from the passage, of shallow.
viii) Give the synonym, from the passage, of destructive.
i) Redwood trees are the largest trees on the planet.
ii) for thousands of years
iii) Their roots do not grow deep.
iv) Their roots reach outward seeking the roots of other redwood trees.
v) When the roots meet, they intertwine, making a permanent bond with one another. Thus all redwood trees support one another.
vi) Unity is strength. When you receive, you make a living; when you give, you make a life.
vii) deep
viii) devastating

28. Everything Relative

Can zero and infinity be the same? This question may seem misleadingly simple. Your instant answer could be No’. But ‘Yes’ is the right answer. That doesn’t mean No’ is wrong. How? Compare the diameter of the earth with the distance between the sun and the arth. Earth’s diameter appears to be almost zero. Now, compare the same with that of a grain. It seems to be infinite. This proves that everything is relative and nothing is abstract. Now, consider, ‘What is riches ?M If your income is more than your wants, you are RICH! More wants, less income ? That is poverty. Want to be rich? Can’t earn more ? Cut down wants, become rich. How logic can comfort one sounds lovely!

Questions :
i) What is the question that seems misleadingly simple?
iii) What proves your answer-be a yes or no-to be right or wrong?
iv) What is the definition of riches, according to the passage?
y) How can one grow rich even without being able to earn more?
vi) How does logic, even only at times, help one?
vii) Name the planet(s) mentioned in the passage.
viii) The whole passage proves one single point; What is that?
i) Can zero and infinity be the same ?
ii) ‘No’
iii) comparison
iv) having income more than wants
v) by cutting down wants
vi) by comforting them
vii) the earth
viii) Everything is relative and nothing is abstract

29. Small is Beautiful

Be it a big task or tough problem, make it into smaller units and see its impact! Break down an unthought desire into its components and allow the child to decide. The Mac Donald’s Happy Meal comes with a burger, a drink, some fries and a small toy. My kid wanted it at age five. I could buy it but broke down the decision for her-“you don’t like fries, the burger is not the kind you really like, and the drink on its own costs far less. Are we
buying because they are selling or we really like the deal ? If we do so, sure, let us get it”. At age five, she walked from the deal. And from many others after that. [Revision Test – I]

Questions :
i) Break down an unthought desire into components. How would this help one ?
ii) What does the Happy Meal include ?
iii) Who asked for the Happy Meal and when ?
iv) The narrator could buy it. Yet he/she didn’t. What did he/she do ?
v) What should be the deciding factor to buy something, according to the narrator ?
vi) The five-year-old kid did not cry when her desire was not fulfilled. Why ?
vii) The passage extends a valuable piece of advice to parents. Say true or false.
viii) “…………… the drink on its own ………………” Write the part of speech of drink.
i) that helps one in taking proper decisions
ii) It includes a burger, a drink, some fries and a small toy.
iii) The narrator’s kid wanted it at age five.
iv) The narrator broke down the decision for her.
v) Whether we really like the deal should be the deciding factor.
vi) The broken down decision helped the girl understand that the deal was not what she really liked.
vii) true
viii) ‘drink’-noun

30. Kumbh Mela

In my own city of Allahabad or in Haridwar, I would go to the great bathing festivals, the Kumbh Mela, and see hundreds of thousands of people come, as their forebears had come for thousands of years from all over India, to bathe in the Ganges. I would remember descriptions of these festivals written thirteen hundred years ago by Chinese pilgrims and others, and even then these meals were ancient and lost in unknown antiquity. What was the tremendous faith, I wondered, that had drawn our people for untold generations to this famous river of India ? [Revision Test – II]

Questions :
i) What is the phrase used in the passage to mean Kumbh Mela ?
ii) Kumbh Mela is a modem event, Say true of false.
iv) Can we say when exactly the festival began ?
v) What draws people to this famous river festival for so many years ?
vi) Write the word used in the passage to mean festival, fair.
vii) Write the synonym (from the passage) of ancestors.
viii) Write the noun form of describe.
i) the great bathing festivals
ii) false
iii) thirteen hundred years ago
iv) No.
v) The tremendous faith
vi) ‘mela’
vii) forebears
viii) description-noun

31. Where Shawdow Stays Stable !

Shadows keep changing positions and size, if the distance between the source of light and the object changes ! But at Chaya Someswara Temple at Panagal, dear Nalgonda, the shadow (Chaya, hence the name of the temple) of pillars stays constant on the lingam at any time, despite changes in the above said distance. The pillars of ardhamandapa and open spaces near the central shrine were designed and placed in such a way by the then architects as to produce this effect of stable shadow on the lingam all through the day.

A miracle one must see to believe ! Believed to have been built in the 11 century AD, the construction credits go to Kanduru Chodas. This thrikutalayam has three shrines dedicated to Lord Shiva, Vishnu and Surya. A common hall, mandapam, keeps these three shrines as one complex. Many intricately carved pillars, around this mandapam depict scenes from the Ramayana, the Mahabharatha and the Puranas ! [Revision Test – III]

Questions :
i) Describe the nature of shadows.
ii) Give an example of exception to this nature of shadows.
iii) Why is the temple called Chaya Someswara Temple ?
iv) What makes the temple also known as thrikutalayam ?
v) Who is believed to have built this unique temple ?
vi) Where does the shadow fall all through the day ?
vii) Is it the shadow of a single object ? Support your answer with a sentence from the passage.
viii) What do the pillars depict ?
i) Shadows keep changing positions and sizes if the distance between the source of light and the object changes.
ii) the shadow of pillars at Chaya Someswara Temple at Panagal, near Nalgonda.
iii) ‘Chaya’ in Telugu, means shadow. As he shadow here stays stable all through the day on the Lingam, the temple is called Chaya Someswara Temple.
iv) as there are three shrines
v) Kanduru Chodas
vi) on the Linga?n
vii) No. “The pillars of… produce this effect of stable shadow.”
viii) scenes from the Ramayana, the Mahabharatha and the Puranas

32. Maitri-lndeed a Friend in Need

The world is in a word, says Wordsmith. Words packed with positive vibrations can light up the dark world of narrowminded, selfish and loveless millions, says Ms Jalandhara, a writer, guide, mentor and most importantly, healer ! An incarnation of simplicity and modesty, Ms Jalandhara was born into the family of Gali Bala Sundara Rao (GBS), a godlike doctor and multifaceted personality. And she was married to Mr Chandra Mohan, a versatile, multi-lingual cine star.

Yet she shines like a star, uneclipsed between the two mighty personalities. With innumerable creative works-stories, novels etc.,-to her credit, shlfe seeks to promote peace in minds and homes with a missionary zeal. Unconditional and universal love is her panacea. Cite your problems to Maitri, a question-answer feature both online and offline, and prompt comes the solution in the form of thought-provoking counselling. Homes flourishing with smiles following her advice are innumerable all over the globe ! The true symbol of empowering woman! [Revision Test – IV]

Questions :
i) How can the dark world of millions be filled up with light ?
ii) What are the two traits highlighted here in the lead character’s personality ?
iii) Name the two prominent personalities mentioned here associated with her.
iv What is her mission ?
v) How does she seek to promote peace in minds and homes ?
vi) What is her panacea ?
vii) What does the central character stand for as a symbol ?
viii) Write the word used in the passage to mean cure-for-all.
i) Words packed with positive vibrations can light up the dark world of millions.
ii) simplicity and modesty
iii) Gali Bala Sundara Rao, her father and Mr. Chandra Mohan, her husband.
iv) to promote peace in minds and homes
v) through her thought provoking counselling
vi) unconditional and universal love
vii) as a symbol of empowering woman
viii) panacea

33. Innocence Unbeatable

Do you think you can confuse innocent kids easily ? Find out for yourself. Once a curious boy asked his mother, Mommy, why is your hair turning grey ? The mother tried to use this occasion to teach her child a lesson in behaviour. So, she said, “It is because of you, dear. Every bad action of yours will turn one hair grey.” Instantly came the retort from the inncoent boy, “Now I know why grandmother has only grey hair on her head.” Can you see who taught whom a lesson in manners ? [Revision Test – V]

Questions :
i) What is the message given in the passage ?
ii) What quality of the boy made him ask his mother a question ?
iii) How did the mother want to use this occasion ?
iv) Why would her hair turn grey, according to the mother ?
v) Was the mother true in saying that reason for her grey hair ?
vi) Did the boy take time to answer his mother ? Support your answer with a phrase from the passage.
vii) Write the word used in the passage to mean a witty, sharp reply.
viii) Find the antonym in the passage of experienced.
i) One cannot confuse innocent kids easily.
ii) his curiosity
iii) to teach her child a lesson in behaviour
iv) Every bad action of her son would turn one of her hairs grey.
v) No, she wasn’t true.
vi) No, instantly came the innocent retort from the boy.
vii) ‘retort’
viii) ‘innocent’

34. Beauty lies in …. …… …….

“A thing of beauty is a joy forever, says Keats. But what is real beauty ? A big question. Yet, people crave for beauty. And man’s (or woman’s) craze for beauty supports big business. Cosmetics cost a lot. Here is a list of priceless cosmetics. On being asked, a wise woman gives the list from the core of her heart. I use truth for my lips; prayer for my voice; kindness and compassion for my eyes; love for my heart; charity for my hands and finally, uprightness for my figure ! How long – lasting the cosmetic are ! How valuable they are ! Priceless possessions !   [Model Question Paper]

Questions :
i) What does Keats say about beauty ?
ii) What does the beauty business thrive on ?
iii) What list does the wise woman give us ?
iv) Where can one get the cosmetics the wise woman uses ?
v) What does that wise woman use to make her eyes look beautiful ?
vi) Describe the cosmetics the wise woman uses ?
i) A thing of beauty is a joy forever.
ii) cosmetics
iii) the list of priceless (long-lasting) cosmetics
iv) in one’s heart
v) kind and compassion
vi) truth, prayer, kindness and compassion, love, charity and uprightness

## TS Inter 1st Year English Reading Comprehension Passages from Short Stories

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 1st Year English Study Material Reading Comprehension Passages from Short Stories Exercise Questions and Answers.

## TS Inter 1st Year English Reading Comprehension Passages from Short Stories

Q.No. 6 (4 out of 6 Questions: 4 × 1 = 4)

Comprehension is a very important skill. It refers to the process of understanding the information presented in a written or oral text. In the Intermediate Public Examination (English) the students’ ability to understand a printed text is tested. This is, therefore, classified as ‘reading comprehension’. Understanding a spoken text is known as ‘listening comprehension’.

Comprehension needs a careful study of the given text. Apart from the explicit meaning there may be implicit meanings and inferences.

In the Public examination, questions of various types follow the given text. Understanding the questions properly is as or rather more, important as understanding the text. Reading the questions first, therefore, will be of some help in improving one’s comprehension skills.

Careful observation of the way the given language is used and regular practice will ensure mastering this all important skill-comprehension.

Exercises

PLAYING THE GAME

1. Do his best! Of course he would. For Alan was playing in the school cricket match and was mightily proud of being chosen to play. He had practised bowling with his father for weeks now, and Daddy said he was shaping well. Daddy was nearly as excited as Alan over the match and he promised that if Alan’s side won he would buy him a bicycle.

Questions :
i) Do his best ! Of course he would. Who would be doing well ?
ii) What was he proud of ?
iii) How did he practise cricket ?
iv) What was his father’s promise ?
v) Write the antonym of win’.
vi) ‘Daddy was nearly as excited as Alan over the match ‘Here the adverb, ‘nearly’ means … Choose the answer.
a) almost
b) completely
c) quietly
d) happily
vii) What is the informal name of father mentioned in the passage ?
viii) Write the noun form of practise’.
i) Alan
ii) He was proud of being chosen to play.
iii) He practised bowling with his father.
iv) Alan’s father promised him that if their side won the match, he would buy him a bicycle.
v) lose
vi) (a) almost
viii) practice

2. “Where do you live, sir ?” called Alan at last in the old man’s ear.
“Up the road and some way round the corner, “he answered in his thin, weak voice. ” I should be so much obliged if you could see me home. You look a very kind little boy.” See him home ? And they were still a long way off! If only he could walk a little faster. Why, the teams would be already on the field, and the captain would be wondering why he did not come.

Questions :
i) What did Alan ask in the old man’s ear ?
ii) Where was the old man’s house ?
iii) What request did the old man make to Alan ?
iv) Why was Alan in a hurry ?
v) If only he could walk a little faster. Why did Alan want the old man to walk faster ?
vi) Why would the captain be wondering ?
vii) I should be so much obliged if you could see me home. Obliged in the sentence means ………. …………… Choose the answer.
a) forceful
b) thankful
c) polished
d) all the above
viii) Pick out the word from the passage which is the antonym of strong.
i) “Where do you live, sir ?”
ii) up the road and some way round the corner.
iii) The old man requested Alan to see him home.
iv) He was in a hurry to reach the ground in time to play in the match.
v) because, he wanted to reach the ground in time
vi) The captain would be wondering why Alan did not come.
vii) (b) thankful
viii) weak

3. And in the classroom next morning the boys gave Alan three loud cheers, as only schoolboys can, for in some mysterious fashion they too had learned all about his kind act.

Questions :
i) From which story is this passage taken ?
ii) Who is the writer of the story from which this passage is taken ?
iii) Where and when did the schoolboys meet ?
iv) What did they do ?
v) Why did the boys give Alan three loud cheers ?
vi) What does the phrase three loud cheers mean ?
vii) How did the boys come to know about Alan’s kind act ?
viii) Pick out the word from the passage which means strange.
i) “Playing the Game”
ii) Arthur Henry Mee
iii) in the classroom, the next morning.
iv) They gave Alan three loud cheers.
v) As they learned about Alan’s kind act in some mysterious way.
vi) Compliments conveyed through rhythmic claps in a joyous way
vii) in some mysterious fashion
viii) mysterious

4. “Bravo, Alan,” he said, patting his little son on the back. “But, Daddy,” began Alan. But his father interrupted him. “It’s all right, old man,” he said. “You see, I came up behind that policeman and he told me what had happened. So I knew you were playing the game although it wasn’t on the cricket pitch. So I went back into the High Street and bought the bicycle I promised you. It’s a beauty. And, Alan, we’re proud of you, your Mother and I.” [Revision Test-I]

Questions :
i) Who is the writer of the story from which this passage is taken ?
ii) Why did Alan’s father pat on his back ?
iii) How did Alan’s father come to know what had happened ?
iv) I came up behind that policeman. Did Alan’s father go to the spot where Alan helped the old man ?
v) Alans’ father says, ” ……………….. although it wasn’t on the cricket pitch.” Where did Alan play the game ?
vi) Why did Alan’s father buy the bicycle ?
vii) Why were they proud of Alan ?
viii) When would you use the expression, bravo ?
i) Arthur Henry Mee
ii) to encourage and to appreciate what Alan had done
iii) through the policeman behind whom Alan’s father came
iv) Yes.
v) in the real world-in life-on the meadow
vi) to support and appreciate Alan’s service activities
vii) because Alan ‘played the game’ in its true sense
viii) When we want to appreciate someone’s achievement we use the word ‘bravo’.

THE FIVE BOONS OF LIFE

5. The man considered long, then chose Love; and did not mark the tears that rose in the fairy’s eyes.
After many, many years the man sat by a coffin, in an empty home. And he communed with himself, saying : “One by one they have gone away and left me; and now she lies here, the dearest and the last. Desolation after desolation has swept over me; for each hour of happiness the treacherous trader, Love, as sold me I have paid a thousand hours of grief. Out of my heart of hearts I curse him.”
Questions :
i) The man chose the gift Love at once, without thinking. Write true or false.
ii) With whom did the man commune ?
iii) The word rose used as a verb in the passage means came forth. As a noun, it means :
a) stood up
b) a flower
c) a fruit
iv) How is his sadness or loss expressed in the passage ?
v) Whom did the man call a treacherous trader ?
vi) ‘Out of my heart of hearts I curse him’… whom does the word him refer to ?
vii) Find the antonym of the word bless from the passage. ‘
viii) Write the word from the passage which means the box in which a dead body is buried or cremated.
i) false
ii) He communed (talked) with himself,
iii) (b) a flower
iv) by saying to himself how love has left him in grief
v) Love
vi) Love
vii) curse
viii) coffin

6. “Choose yet again” It was he fairy’s voice.
“Two gifts remain. And do not despair. In the beginning there was but one that was precious and it is still here”.
“Wealth – which is power ! How blind 1 was !” said the man.
“Now, at last, life will be worth the living. I will spend, squander, dazzle. These mockers and despisers will crawl in the dirt before me, and I will feed my hungry heart with their envy.

Questions :
ii) Did the man choose the precious gift before ? How do you know ?
iii) Who does the word I refer to in the sentence, “How blind I was !” ?
iv) With what would his life be worth the living ?
v) How would the man feed his hungry heart ?
vi) The man said that he was blind to the fact. What was the poet ?
vii) What was the man’s real motive in choosing wealth ?
viii) Write the synonym of the word jealousy from the passage.
i) three
ii) No. Because the precious gift is still there.
iii) The word T refers to the man, the lead character in the story.
iv) with wealth
v) with the envy of his mockers and despisers.
vi) The fact is that wealth is power.
vii) to make his life worth the living and to make his mockers feel jealous of him.
viii) envy

7. The fairy came, bringing again four of the gifts, but Death was wanting. She said :
‘I gave it to a mother’s pet, a little child. It was innocent, but trusted me, asking me to choose for it. You did not ask me to choose.”
“Oh, miserable me ! What is left for me ?”
“What not even you have deserved: the wanton insult of Old Age.” [Revision Test – II]
Questions :
i) The fairy brought the gift, Death too. Say Yes or No.
ii) Who does the word I refer to ?
iii) What did the fairy give little child ?
iv) What is the epithet used to describe the little child ?
v) The man didn’t repose faith in the fairy. Write true or false.
vi) What was left for the man ?
vii) Write the word from the passage that means very unhappy.
viii) Write the antonymn of the word intelligent from the passage.
i) No
ii) The word T refers to the fairy,
iii) Death
iv) a mother’s pet
v) true
vi) not even what he deserved; the wanton insult of old age
vii) miserable
viii) innocent

8. “The years have taught you wisdom-surely it must be so.
Three gifts remain. Only one of them has any worth-remember it, and choose warily.”
The man reflected long, then chose Fame; and the fairy, sighing, went her way.
Years went by and she came again, and stood behind the man where he sat solitary in the fading day, thinking. And she knew his thought. [Model Question Paper]
Questions :
i) Two of the remaining gifts are worthy. Write true or false.
ii) What did the man opt this time ?
iii) Was the fairy happy with his selection ?
iv) Which word in the passage indicates that the man was alone ?
v) Write the synonym of the word renown from the passage.
vi) Write the word from the passage which means disappearing gradually.
i) false
ii) fame
iii) No, the fairy was not happy.
iv) solitary
v) fame

THE SHORT-SIGHTED BROTHERS

9. “Three elderly brothers, all very short-sighted, lived in a large house on the outskirts of a city, in China. One day the youngest brother suggested that he should take charge of the finances. “Elder brother’s sight is so bad, he cannot see how much money he’s receiving or giving,” he said, “and people take advantage of his disability.”

Questions :
i) Where did the three brothers live ?
ii) What did the youngest brother propose one day ?
iii) How did the youngest brother support his claim ?
iv) How would people take the eldest brother’s short-sightedness, according to the youngest brother ?
v) Was the youngest brother sincere in his suggestion ?
vi) Their sight problem was negligible. Is it true or false ?
vii) Give the synonym of edge from the passage.
viii) Write a set of antonyms you find in the passage as good is the antonym of bad’.
i) in a large house on the outskirts of a city, in China.
ii) that he should take charge of the finances.
iii) That his eldest brother’s sight was so bad that he couldn’t see how much money he was receiving or giving
iv) People would take advantage of the eldest brother’s disability.
v) No. The youngest brother was not sincere.
vi) False. They were all very short-sighted, outskirts
viii) receiving × giving

10. ‘The tablet has a flowery border”. The second brother went away very pleased with himself. Hardly had he gone when the third brother arrived there. He too enquired about the inscription and on being told what it was, asked if there was any other writing on it.” “Only the donor’s name, Wang Lee, at the bottom,” said the monk.

Questions :
i) What did the tablet have for its decoration ?
iii) Who was very happy to know about that decoration ?
iv) When did the third brother reach the monastery ?
v) What did the youngest brother want to know particularly ?
vi) Where was the donor’s name mentioned ?
vii) Why was the second brother happy with himself ?
viii) Write the antonym of departed from the passage.
i) a flowery border
ii) the monk
iii) the second brother
iv) hardly when the second brother had gone away from the monastery
v) if there was any other writing on the tablet
vi) at the bottom of the tablet
vii) as he thought he alone learnt about the inscription and the flowery decoration
viii) arrived

11. The monk they had talked to the previous evening came out of the monastery just then and walked towards the short sighted brothers.
“Oh you’ve come to see the inscription,” he said. “So sorry. We couldn’t put it up yesterday evening. We are going to put it up today.”
The short-sighted brothers realised their follies.
Questions :
i) When did they all talk to the monk ?
ii) Did each brother know that the others also had talked to the monk ?
iii) Where did the monk go ?
iv) Why did the monk say sorry ?
v) What does the word it refer to?
vi) When were they going to put it up ?
vii) What did the brothers realise ?
viii) They didn’t put up the inscription as originally scheduled. How did it help the brothers ?
i) The previous evening
ii) No. They did not know about the others’ visit.
iii) The monk went towards the short-sighted brothers.
iv) Because they couldn’t put up the tablet the previous evening, the monk, said sorry.
v) The word ‘it’ refers to ‘the tablet’.
vi) They were going to put up the tablet that day.
vii) They realised their follies.
viii) It helped the brothers realise their follies.

12. “I have my doubts about that,” said the eldest brother. “Let’s settle this once and for all. I’ve heard the monastery is putting up a tablet inscribed with a saying, above the main doorway, tonight. Let’s go there tomorrow and test our vision. Whoever can read the inscription with the least strain will get charge of our money. Agreed ?” [Revision Test – III]

Questions :
i) Name the story from which this passage is taken.
ii) Who does “I” in the paragraph refer to ?
iii) What did the speaker want to settle once and for all ?
iv) What did the speaker come to know of ?
v) Where should they go to get their vision tested, the following day ?
vi) Who would get the charge of their money, according to the proposal ?
vii) When was the monastery putting up a tablet above their doorway ?
viii) Write the word that is used in the passage that means a place where monks live.
i) The Short-sighted Brothers.
ii) “I” in the paragraph refers to the eldest brother.
iii) as to who among the three brothers had a better sight.
iv) of the monastery putting up a tablet inscribed with a saying, above the main doorway, that night.
v) to the monastery
vi) the one who could read the inscription with the least strain
vii) on that night (when this discussion in the story was going on)
viii) monastery

SANGHALA PANTHULU

13. Thus, things were moving happily. But the farmers were perturbed. They observed the lives of people on the other side of the river Krishna ruled by the British and found that people were happy there. There was no drudgery, no penalties-no beatings either. But if the people of Ramasagaram were to migrate to that side leaving the households and assets earned by their ancestors and their caste trades as well, how would they live ?

Questions :
i) “Thus, things were moving happily.” ‘Happily’ to whom ?
ii) What did the farmers observe ?
iii) What did the farmers find out ?
iv) What was the reason for the vast difference in the lives of Ramasagaram people and that of those living on the other side of the river ?
v) Was it possible for the people of Ramasagaram to migrate to the other side of the river ?
vi) Give the word from the passage that means disturbed /worried Anxious .
vii) According to the passage, two groups of persons were happy. Name those two groups.
viii) Write the Noun form of the word migrate.
i) moving happily to the police personnel
ii) observed the lives of people on the other side of river Krishna ruled by the Britishers.
iii) found that people on the other side of river Krishna were happy
iv) The reason : Ramasagaram was under the Nizam’s rule and the village on the other side of river Krishna was ruled by the Britishers.
v) No, it was not possible for them to migrate.
vi) ‘perturbed’
vii) the police; the people on the other side of river Krishna
viii) ‘migration’

14. In the evening, about five hundred people gathered under the peepul. Pahthulu explained about the nature of drudgery to all of them. He also taught them legal points. He insisted that nobody should agree to drudgery if wages were not paid. While the meeting was still going or, Ameen Saab arrived pompously on a horse along with eight jawans. “Panthulu, are you aware of the Nizam’s Act number 53 pertaining to patrolling ?!’ asked the Ameen.

Questions :
i) Where did the people assemble ?
ii) What did Panthulu explain to them ?
iii) The villagers meeting under the peepul tree already knew legal points. Say true or false
iv) What did Panthulu insist on ?
v) When did the Ameen Saab come there ?
vi) What did Act number 53 deal with ?
vii) Write the antonym of modestly from the passage.
viii) The passage pictures Panthulu as a man (fill in).

1. interested in legal practise
2. promoting violence
3. committed to the cause of the common man <
4. serving the purpose of the police

i) under the peepul tree
ii) about the nature of drudgery
iii) false
iv) that nobody should agree to drudgery if wages were not paid
v) while the meeting was still going on
vi) with patrolling
vii) pompously
viii) (3) committed to the cause of the common man

15. After a week, the Mohathemeem arrived. The police didn’t divulge the disgrace they faced. But they recorded that Panthulu had instigated the villagers to revolt by trying to run a parallel government. They also mentioned that if the army was not sent, a great danger was looming large. The Mohathemeem summoned the farmers and inquired with them about the incident.

Questions :
i) Why did the Mohathemeem come to Ramasagaram ?
ii) What did the police hide from the Mohathemeem ?
iii) What did the police charge Panthulu with ?
iv) What did the police request for ?
v) Who did the Mohathemeem call to know more about the incident ?
vi) Write the idiomused in the passage that means something very frightening was certain to happen.
vii) Write the synonym from the passage of called.
viii) Name the part of speech of divulge.
i) to inquire into the reported violence
ii) the disgrace the police faced
iii) that Panthulu instigated the villagers to revolt by trying to run a parallel government.
iv) for the army to be sent to the village
v) the farmers
vi) looming large
vii) summoned
viii) verb

16. The news about the arrived of the elderly man from city had spread in the village by morning. The villagers said he was a tall stout man. He helped form associations in villages. He sported a kerchief like lawyers do. He brought a leather suitcase which was full of books. He knew all the bigwigs in the city. He would do away with all our troubles. [Revision Test – IV]
Questions :
i) Name the story from which this passage is taken.
ii) Who does the phrase the elderly man refer to ?
iii) How would the elderly man help the villagers ?
iv) What did he bring with him ?
v) The villagers talked about the elderly man ………………… (fill in).

2. appreciatively
3. accusingly
4. arrogantly

vi) Find the Phrasal Verb used in the passage that means put an end to; eliminate.
vii) The word sported as used in this passage means ……………… (fill in).

1. game
2. athletics
3. wore

played
viii) Find the passage the Antonym of lean.
i) Sanghala Panthulu
ii) Sanghala Panthulu
iii) He would help the villagers form associations and solve their problems.
iv) a leather suitcase, full of books
v) (2) appreciatively
vi) do(es) away with
vii) (3) wore
viii) stout

THE DINNER PARTY

17. A spirited discussion springs up between a young girl who insists that women have outgrown the jumping-on-a-chair-at-the-sight-of-a-mouse era and a colonel who says that they haven’t. “A woman’s unfailing reaction in any crisis,” the colonel says, “is to scream. And while a man may feel like it, he has that ounce more nerve control than a woman has. And that last ounce is what counts.”

The American does not join in the argument but watches the other guests. As he looks, he sees a strange expression come over the face of the hostess. She is staring straight ahead, her muscles contracting slightly. With a slight gesture, she summons the native boy standing behind her chair and whispers to him. The boy’s eyes widen: he quickly leaves the room. Of the guests, none except the American notices this or sees the boy place a bowl of milk on the veranda just outside the open doors.

Questions :
i) What are the young girl and the colonel arguing about ?
ii) The American joins the discussion. Say true or false.
iii) What does the American naturalist notice ?
iv) What does the hostess want the servant to do ?
v) Identify the synonym of calls from the passage.
vi) Find the antonym of familiar in the passage.
vii) “…………. he has that ounce more nerve control than a woman has. “What does the word nerve mean ?
viii) Pick out the word that fits the meaning of making narrower in the passage.
i) about the nerve control of women
ii) false
iii) a strange expression on the face of the hostess
iv) to place a bowl of milk on the veranda just outside the open doors
v) summons
vi) strange
vii) emotions-anxiety
viii) contracting

18. “I want to know just what control everyone at this table has. I will count to three hundred- that’s five minutes-and not one of you is to move a muscle. Those who move will forfeit fifty rupees . Ready !”

The twenty people sit like stone images while he counts. He is saying. two hundred and eighty…” when, out of the corner of his eye, he sees the cobra emerge and make for the bowl of milk. Screams ring out as he jumps to slam the veranda doors safely shut.

‘You were right, Colonel!” the host exclaims. “A man has just shown us an example of perfect control.” “Just a minute,” the American says, turning to his hostess. “Mrs. Wynnes, how did you know that cobra was in the room ?” A faint smile lights up the woman’s face as she replies : “Because it was crawling across my foot.”

Questions :
i) What is the proposal from the American ?
ii) What does the American do to make the guests at the party stay stable ?
iii) Pick out the word which means lose as punishment from the passage.
iv) Pick out the word from the passage that means weak or dull.
v) Why does the American shut the doors ?
vi) How does the American react, when the host gives credit to him for having the most control?
vii) What does the hostess prove to her guests ?
viii) When does the cobra come out ?
i) that he will count to three hundred and none of them is to move a muscle
ii) To make, the guests say stable and silent, the naturalist throws a challenge at them.
iii) forfeit
iv) faint
v) for safety, to prevent the snake from coming back again
vi) He asks them to wait and proves to them who really has the nerve control.
vii) The hostess proves to the guests that she has lots of nerve control.
viii) When the naturalist is saying two hundred and eighty.

19. The country is India. A colonial official and his wife are giving a large dinner party. They are seated with their guests-army officers and government attaches and their wives, and a visiting American naturalist-in their spacious dining room, which has a bare marble floor, open rafters and wide glass doors opening onto a veranda. [Revision Test – V]

Questions :
i) In which country is this story set ?
ii) Who is the host of the party ?
iii) Where is the party arranged ?
iv) What is synonym for the word porch in the passage ?
v) Who is the special guest in the party ?
vi) Describe the place where the dinner is hosted.
vii) Write the antonym of narrow from the passage.
viii) Identity the word from the passage that means touring.
i) in India
ii) a colonial official and his wife
iii) in the spacious dining room of the hosts
iv) veranda
v) a visiting American naturalist
vi) a spacious dining room with a bare marble floor, open rafters and wide glass doors opening onto a veranda
vii) spacious
viii) visiting

## TS Inter 1st Year English Grammar Transformation of Sentences

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 1st Year English Study Material Grammar Transformation of Sentences Exercise Questions and Answers.

## TS Inter 1st Year English Grammar Transformation of Sentences

Q. No. 13 (4 × 1 = 4)

A. VOICE

The term ‘voice’ in grammar refers to one aspect of the verb. If the verb group in a sentence has ‘be + pp of the verb’, that sentence is said to be in the passive voice. If any of or both the elements (be + V3) are missing in the structure of the verb, the sentence is said to be in the active voice. (వాక్యంలోని verb groupలో ‘be + V3 ఉంటే ఆ వాక్యాన్ని passive voice అని, be + V3 లలో ఏ ఒక్కటి లేకున్నా active voice అని అంటారు.)

If the verb is in the passive form, the subject of that sentence is just the ‘sufferer’ of the action indicated by the verb, (verb passive లో ఉంటే ఆ వాక్యంలోని subject, verb సూచించిన పని ఫలితాన్ని అనుభవిస్తుంది. అందుకనే ఈ రూపానికి ‘passive’ ‘సోమరిగా’, ‘పనిచేయకుండా’ అని పేరు.)

If the verb group is in the active voice, the subject of that sentence is the ‘doer’ of the action shown by the verb. (Verb Active voice లో ఉన్నప్పుడు, ఆ వాక్యం యొక్క subject, verb సూచించిన పనిని చేస్తుంది. అందుకే ఈ రూపానికి ‘Active చురుకుగా పనిచేస్తున్న’ అని పేరు)

If the doer of an action is either unimportant or unknown, the passive structure is natural. (పనిచేసినవారు ప్రధానం కాకున్నా, తెలియకున్నా, passive నిర్మాణాలు సహజంగా ఉంటాయి. )

Someone admitted him to the hospital immediately. (AV)
He was admitted to the hospital immediately. (PV)
He was killed in the war.
Rice is grown in many parts of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
English is spoken all over the world.
The roads have been swept The syllabus was changed last year.
The shop has been closed.
The doubts have been cleared by my teacher Agent

Transformation of sentences from one voice to the other involves five steps.

1. The object in the Active Voice sentence becomes the subject in the Passive Voice sentence.
Ex : They made (ten kites)Object (A.V)
(Ten kites) Subject were made by them. (P.V.)

If there are two objects in the A.V. sentence, either of them can be made the subject in the PV. sentence.

An interesting book was given to her brother by her.

Active :

1. I told them an interesting story.
2.  I told an interesting story to them.

Passive:

1. An interesting story was told to them.
2. They were told an interesting story.

2. A suitable ‘be’ form is to be introduced. This is the most important step. Selection of the right be’ form is based on two factors : (a) the number and person of the subject in the passive voice and (b) the tense of the verb in the Active Voice.
The following table helps one select the right be form.

 S. No. Subject in the Passive Voice Tense of the verb in Active Voice ‘Be form to be used in the Passive Voice 1 I Simple Present am 2 he, she, it singlar nouns Simple Present is 3 We, you, they plural nouns Simple Present are 4 I, he, she, it singular nouns Simple Past was 5 We, you, they plural nouns Simple Past were 6 I Present Continuous am being 7 he, she, it singular nouns Present Continuous is being 8 We, you, they plural subjects Present Continuous are being 9 1, he, she, it singular nouns Past Continuous was being 10 We, you, they plural subjects Past Continuous were being 11 ‘ he, she, it Singular nouns Present Perfect has been 12 I, we, you, they plural nouns Present Perfect have been 13 Any subject Past Perfect had been 14 Any subject will/shall/can/ may/would should/could/ might/ must, etc. will, etc. +be 15 Any subject will etc + have will, etc. + have been

3. The main verb in the Active Voice sentence is to be changed into its past participle form. One must know the correct past participle forms of irregular verbs.

4. The preposition ‘by’ is used.

5. The subject in the Active voice sentence is made the object of the preposition ‘by’ in the passive voice sentence.
Ex : He broke the glass. (A.V.)
The glass was broken by him. (P.V.)
prep+object
If the subject in the A.V. sentence is either unimportant or a general one, ‘by + object’ may be dropped.
Ex : Someone removed the dead snake. (A.V.)
The dead snake was removed. (P-V.)
(by someone’ is dropped)
People call him ‘Babuji’. (A.V.)
He is called ‘Babuji’. (‘by people’ not necessary) (P.V.)

CHANGE IMPERATIVE SENTENCES INTO PASSIVE

We follow a slightly different method to change imperative sentences from the A.V. to the P.V. (Sentences with dropped subject and with V + object structure, conveying a request or an order are called imperative sentences.)
1. The passive voice sentence begins with ‘Let’.
Ex : Close the door. (A.V.) imperative
Let the door be closed. (P.V.)

2. The object in the A.V. sentence becomes the subject in the RV. sentence.
Object
Let this question be answered. (P.V.)
Subject

3. The ‘be’ form ‘be’ is introduced.
(Whatever be the subject or the tense form, it is always ‘be’ in imperative sentences.)
Ex : Clean the room. (A.V.)
Let the room be cleaned. (P.V.)

4. The M.V. is changed into its Past Participle form.
Ex : Paint this chair. (A.V.)
M.V.
Let this chair be painted. (P.V.)
As the subject is not explicit in the imperative sentences, the need to use ‘by’ and its object doesn’t arise, while changing imperative sentences into the passive voice.

CHANGING QUESTIONS INTO PASSIVE

Study carefully the transformation of the interrogative sentences into the passive voice.
Ex : Who brought this book ? (A.V.)
All the steps followed here are exactly like those we follow in changing the declarative sentences. But the word order is different.
By whom + be + Subject + M.V in PP + etc ?
Nbw, notice the transformation of Questions with other ‘wh’ words.
Ex : Where did you put my pen ? (A.V.)
Where was my pen put ? (P.V.)
‘Wh’ word + be + subject + MV in PP ?
Observe how ‘yes / no’ Questions are rewritten in the passive voice.
Have you solved the problem ? (A.V.)
Has the problem been solved ? (P.V.)
Helping Verb + Subject + be + MV in pp + etc. ?

EXAMPLES
Let the post be advertised. (P.V.)

2. America imports Indian tea. (A.V.)
Indian tea is imported by America. (P.V.)

3. The auditors are checking the accounts. (A.V.)
The accounts are being checked by the auditors. (P.V.)

4. They have sent the information. (A.V.)
The information has been sent. (P.V.)

5. Hurry can gain nothing. (A.V.)
Nothing can be gained by hurry. (P.V.)

6. Put the culprit in prison. (A.V)
Let the culprit be put in prison. (P.V.)

7. John teaches us English. (A.V.)
We are taught English by John. (P.V.)
English is taught to us by John. (P.V.)

8. The Manager sent a mail yesterday. (A.V)
A mail was sent by the manager yesterday. (P.V)

9. The conductor has issued tickets to all the passengers. (A.V.)
Tickets have been issued to all the passengers. (P.V.)
All the passengers have been issued tickets. (P.V.)

10. Narayana Murthy started Infosys. (A.V.)
Infosys was started by Narayana Murthy. (P.V.)
Look at the following sentence and observe the changes.

 Tense Active Voice Passive Voice Simple present Floods cause a lot of damage. am/are/is+v3(past participle) A lot of damage is caused by floods Present continuous The gardener is watering the plants. am/are/is+being+v3 The plants are being watered by the gardner. Present perfect We have organized a special programme for children. have/has+been+v3 A special programme has been organized for children (by us). Simple past Raghavendar Rao directed the film ‘Annamayya’. was/were + v3 The film Annamayya’ was directed by Raghavendar Rao. Past continuous When they were shifting the patient to the ICU, he died. Was / were + being v3 When the patient was being shifted to the ICU, he died. Past perfect The driver had already alerted the passengers before the robbers entered the bus. had + been + v3 The passengers had already been alerted before the robbers entered the bus. Simple future I will conduct a spelling – contest tomorrow. shall/will + be + v3 A spelling – contest will be conducted tomorrow. Future perfect They will have decorated the hall by evening. shall / will + have + been + v3 The hall will have been decorated by evening. The future of intention (be going to) Keeravani is going to compose music this song. is going to be + v3 Music is going to be composed by Keeravani for this song. Modal veibs (should, must, ought to, can, etc.) I will type this letter tomorrow. should/would/must/tought/can + be + v3 ThisletowiBbetypedbyrnetorrKxrcw. It is said (that) or subject+is said to be Villagers say that there is a ghost in the old building. It is said that there is a ghost in the old building. Imperative Check the spelling. Let…. be + v3 Let the spelling be checked.

EXERCISES

I. Change the following sentences into the passive voice.

1. We practise yoga every day in the morning.
2. He will make all the arrangements.
3. The judge declared the verdict.
4. They had already announced the results before we entered the hall.
5. Many students sacrificed their precious lives for Telangana.
6. The students borrowed some books from the library.
7. Nobody can save him.
8. How much loan amount has the Bank sanctioned ?
9. One should wear a helmet while riding a two-wheeler.
10. Money alone cannot solve all problems.
11. Switch off the lights.
12. Please maintain silence in the prayer hall.
13. We have to undergo many formalities for getting a visa.
14. The workers called off the strike.
15. The teacher is explaining the lesson.
16. The postman will deliver the letters at noon.
1. Yoga is practised by us every day in the morning.
2. All the arrangements will be made by him.
3. The verdict was declared by the judge.
4. The results had already been announced before we entered the hall.
5. Their precious lives were sacrificed by many students for Telangana.
6. Some books were borrowed by the students from the library.
7. He cannot be saved.
8. How much loan amount has been sanctioned by the Bank ?
9. Helmet should be worn while riding a two-wheeler.
10. All problems cannot be solved by money.
11. Let the lights be switched off.
12. Let silence be maintained in the prayer hall.
13. Many formalities have to be undergone for getting a visa.
14. The strike was called off by the workers.
15. The lesson is being explained by the teacher.
16. The letters will be delivered by the postman at noon.

II. Change the following sentences into the active voice.

1. The parcels will be delivered at any time (by the courier agents)
2. Surya was invited to tea by Chandra.
3. Traffic rules should be followed.
4. Vegetables are washed before cooking.
5. Let the following sentences be changed into the passive voice.
6. How many times were you reminded of the medicine ?
7. Let the dustbin be kept away from the eatables.
9. Every sentence can’t be changed into the passive voice.
10. If the ointment isn’t applied to the wound, it will not heal.
11. My brother has never been beaten at chess by anyone in his school.
12. It is believed that Sammakka and Saralamma are the saviors of their lives in times of crisis by the villagers.
1. The courier agents will deliver the parcels at any time.
2. Chandra invited Surya to tea.
3. One (We) should follow traffic rules.
4. We wash vegetables before cocking.
5. Change the following sentences into the passive voice.
6. How many times did I (we) remind you of the medicine ?
7. Keep the dustbin away from the eatables, (food)
8. Have you invited all your friends to your birthday party ?
9. One (We) can’t change every sentence into the passive voice.
10. If you don’t apply the ointment to the wound, it will not heal.
11. No one in his school has ever beaten my brother in chess.
12. The villagers believe that Sammakka and Saralamma are the saviours of their lives in times of crisis.

III. Change the following sentences into the passive voice.

1. Rainwater fills potholes on roads.
2. He is buying a TV set at the moment.
3. I have been growing plants since 1990.
4. They were reading the newspaper.
6. I will write an essay tonight.
7. You will have posted it by Monday.
8. Can she play the violin ?
9. They may not telecast it.
10. One must do one’s duty.
11. Gall in the doctor.
12. Close the door.
13. The Government has to do it.
14. Someone has already cast my vote.
15. Who could help him ?
1. Potholes on roads are filled with (by) rainwater.
2. A TV set is being bought by him at the moment.
3. Plants have been being grown by me since 1990.
4. TKe newspaper was being read (రెడ్) by them.
6. An essay will be written by me tonight.
7. It will have been posted by you by Monday.
8. Can the violin be played by her ?
9. It may not be telecast, (by them)
10. One’s duty must be done, (by one)
11. Let the doctor be called in.
12. Let the door be closed.
13. It has to be done by the Government.
14. My vote has already been cast, (by someone)
15. By whom could he be helped ?

IV. Change the following into Active Voice.

1. He was seen crossing the road.
2. You are advised to be careful.
3. Let the picture be seen by me.
4. Her purchases were paid for by me.
5. There are no shops to be let.
6. She has been selected their monitor (by the class)
7. It is said that the earth is round.
9. I am surprised at this news.
10. It is hoped that I shall win.
1. We saw him crossing the road.
2. We advise you to be careful.
3. Let me see the picture.
4. I paid for her purchases.
5. There are no shops to let (out).
6. The class has selected her their monitor.
7. People say that the earth is round.
9. This news surprises me.
10. I hope that I shall win.

V. Change the following sentences into the passive voice.

1. I have made a mistake.
2. Your students will respect you a great deal more for your frankness and honesty.
3. Call the attention of your near neighbour at the table to the excellence of the coffee.
4. Do you apply Pythagoras Theorem or Newton’s Law of Gravity ?
5. Rahul lost a quarter mark in English.
6. She planted trees; fenced, watered and guarded them.
7. Their hope and encouragement gave me greater strength.
8. Instantly remove that hatter.
1. A mistake has been made by me.
2. You will be respected by your students a great deal more for your frankness and modesty.
3. Let the attention of your near neighbour at the table be called to the excellence of the coffee.
4. Is Pythagoras Theorem or Newtons Law of Gravity applied by you ?
5. A quarter mark in English was lost by Rahul.
6. Trees were planted, fenced, watered and guarded by her.
7. I was given greater strength by their hope and encouragement. (OR) Greater strength was given to me by their hope and encouragement.
8. Let that hatter be removed instantly.

B. DIRECT SPEECH AND INDIRECT SPEECH/REPORTED SPEECH

Sometimes it becomes necessary to report a person’s words. It can be done in two different ways. One -way is to reproduce the actual words of the speaker. The speaker’s actual words are shown in quotation marks in writing. This kind of reporting is called the ‘Direct Speech’.

The other kind is to express the idea of the speaker in the reporter’s words. This type is referred to as the ‘Indirect Speech’.
(ఒక వ్యక్తి అన్న మాటలకు అన్నట్లుగా తిరిగి చెబితే Direct Speech. కేవలం భావం మాత్రమే తిరిగి చెబితే Indirect Speech.)

The sentence in the Direct Speech has two parts. They are (a) the part outside the quotation marks (called the reporting part and (b) the part within the quatation marks (called the reported part).

The verb in the reporting part is called “the reporting verb.”
“Don’t make a noise,” said the teacher. (Reporting verb)
To change a sentence from the direct speech to the indirect speech, the following steps are to be followed.

1. The reporting part is to be written first. This is applicable only when the reporting part is either in the middle or at the end of the sentence.

Direct Speech :
“Ramu has solved all the problems.” said the teacher (Reporting part at the end)
Indirect Speech :
The teacher said that Ramu had solved all the problems. Reporting part begins the sentence.

2. The order of the words in the reporting part is arranged as “Subject + Verb.” This is applicable only when this order is not followed in the direct speech sentence.

3. The reporting verb is changed to words like ordered, requested, enquired, told, asked, ad-vised exclaimed, depending on the meaning of the reported part.

4. The quotation marks and the comma between the reporting and reported parts are removed in the indirect speech.
Ex : The boy said,” This plant has grown very tall.” (D.S.)
The boy said that plant had grown very tall. (I.S.)

5. A suitable connecting word is used to connect the reporting and reported parts. The selection of the right connecting word needs careful observation.

 SI.No. Sentence in quotation marks Connecting word 1. Assertive or Exclamatory that 2. Imperative to 3. Yes/No type Question if or whether 4. ‘Wh’ type Question No connecting word

6. The pronouns in the reported part are to be changed suitably. This depends on the first speaker, the speaker’s listener, the reporter and the reporter’s listener. One has to ensure that the original speaker’s intention is correctly reported. (Indirect speech లోకి మార్చేటప్పుడు, ఎవరు ఎవరితో అన్న మాటలను తిరిగి ఎవరు ఎవరికి చెబుతున్నారు అనే దానిని బట్టి pronouns మారతాయి. మొదట మాట్లాడిన వ్యక్తి ఉద్దేశ్యం మారకుండా సరిగ్గా చెప్పడం అవసరం.)

Now notice the following examples carefully :
a) The teacher said to you, ‘You are late again.” (D.S.)
The teacher told you that you were late again. (I.S.) ‘you’ not changed.

b) The teacher said to me, “You have improved your performance.” (D.S.)
The teacher told me that I had improved my performance.
You → 1 & Your → my

c) The teacher said to Geetha, “You have to submit your assignments tomorrow.” (D.S.)
The teacher told Geetha that she had to submit her assignments the following day. (I.S.)
You → she and you → her

d) The teacher said to Prudhvi, “When will you finish your computer course” ? (D.S.)
The teacher asked Prudhvi when he would finish his computer course. (I.S.)
You → he and your → his

e) The teacher said to the students, “You must consult your parents.” (D.S.)
The teacher told the students that they should consult their parents. (I.S.)
You → they and Your → their
As the examples a, b, c, d and e show you, pronouns change in accordance with the speaker’s reference to a person/persons.

7. In changing sentences into the indirect speech, the tense form of the verbs in the reported part is to be changed. This is the most important part of the transformation. This is done in accor-dance with the concept popularly known as “the sequence of tenses.” (Reported part లోని verbs tenses మార్చడం అతి ప్రధాన భాగము దీనిని ‘Sequence of tenses’ అనే నియమానుసారంగా )
The following table clearly shows when and how to change the tense.

8. The next step in the transformation from the direct to the indirect is to change the adjectives or adverbs showing ‘nearness to those showing ‘distance as explained in the following table:

 SI. Ajjective / Adverb Adjective or Adverb No. in ‘direct speech’ in ‘indirect speech’ 1. this that 2. these those 3. here there 4. now then 5. today/tonight that day/that night 6. yesterday the previous day/ the day before 7. tomorrow the next day/the following day 8. ago before

9. The transformation from the direct to the indirect involves a change in the word order. This principle is applicable to interrogative and exclamatory sentences only. This is exemplified in the table given below.

 SI. No. Word order in Direct Speech with examples Word order in Indirect Speech with examples 1 … Helping verb+subject+ Main verb … said … “are you coming”… subject-1-Helping verb+Main verb asked … you were / coming 2 Helping verb 4- subject + Main verb said … do you like … subject +…… + Main verb asked … he …. liked 3 ‘wh’ word+adj/adv+ subject + verb said “How beautiful + the toy is … subject + verb + intensifier adj/adv exclaimed – the toy was very n beautiful.

Note that the ‘wh’ word in exclamatory sentences doesn’t have the meaning of a question. It just emphasises the adjective or adverb. Hence this ‘wh’ word in the direct speech becomes the intensifier ‘very’ in the indirect speech.

10. The last step in this kind of transformation is to change the ‘Question mark’ or the ‘exclamatory mark’ into a full stop in the indirect speech.

You must note that all the Ten steps detailed above are not necessary to follow in the case of all kinds of sentences. You carefully check which steps are necessary and which steps are not necessary to follow in changing a given sentence.

EXAMPLES

1. Direct speech:
Reporter : Are you a vegetarian or non-vegetarian?
Bernard Shaw : I don’t want to make my stomach a burial ground for dead animais.
Bernard Shaw : Thank you for your compliments.

Indirect speech :
A reporter asked the famous writer Bernard Shaw whether he was a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian. Bernard Shaw replied that he didn’t want to make his stomach a burial ground for dead animals. The reporter responded that it was a wonderful answer. Bernard Shaw thanked him for his compliments.

3. Gandhi said, “I respect all religions.” (D.S)
Gandhi said that he respected all religions. (I.S)

4. He said to me, “Who is your favourite politician ?” (D.S)
He asked me who my favourite politician was (I.S)

5. An American said, “How hard-working Indians are !” (D.S)
An American exclaimed that Indians were hard-working. (I.S)

6. A customer said to the manager, “Can you do me a favour ?” (D.S)
A customer requested the manager to do him/her a favour. (I.S)

7. Abdul Kalam said, “I have come from a poor background.” (D.S)
Abdul Kalam said that he had come from a poor background. (I.S)

8. The teacher said to a student, “Are you confident ?” . (D.S)
The teacher asked a student whether he / she was confident. (I.S)

9. Amulya says, “I am learning music”. (D.S)
Amulya says that she is learning music. (I.S)

10. The teacher said,’The sun rises in the east.” (D.S)
The teacher said that the sun rises in the east. (I.S)

11. Dr. Rahul said, “1 will try my best to save the patient.” (D.S)
Dr. Rahul said that he would try his best to save the patient. (I.S)

12. Yasoda said to Krishna, “You are mischievous and trouble me a lot. (D.S)
Yasoda told Krishna that he was mischievous and troubled her a lot.” (I.S)

13. They said, “The Minister has at last unveiled the statue today. It has not been unveiled for so many months for reasons unknown.” (D.S)
They said that the Minister had at last unveiled the statue that day and added (that) it had not been unveiled for so many months for reasons unknown. (I.S)

14. A North Indian friend of mine said, “Unlike in Delhi, the climate in Hyderabad is moderate.” (D.S)
A North Indian friend of mine remarked that unlike in Delhi, the climate in Hyderabad was moderate. (I.S)

15. “How is your health ?” said Dr. Charan to a patient. (D.S)
Dr. Charan asked a patient how his/her health was. (I.S)

16. A stranger said to me, “Where is Golconda ?”. (D.S)
A stranger asked me where Golconda was. (I.S)

17. “Dheeraj said to his friend, “Are you interested in teaching ?” (D.S)
Dheeraj asked his friend if/whether he was interested in teaching. (I.S)

18. I said my daughter, “Do you want to do B.Tech. or B.Sc ?” (D.S)
I asked my daughter whether she wanted to do B.Tech or B.Sc. (I.S)

II. Study the following examples and observe how statements are changed into the indirect speech.

 Direct Speech Indirect Speech 1. Simple present He said, “I have many problems.” 1. Simple past He said that he had many problems. 2. Present continuous “I am reporting her words,” he said. 2. Past continuous He said that he was reporting her words. 3. Present perfect The cashier in the Bank said, “I have sent a report.” 3. Past perfect The cashier in die Bank said that he had sent a report. 4. Present perfect continuous A student said, “I have been trying to speak English for two years.” 4. Past perfect continuous A student said that he had been trying to speak English for two years. 5. Simple past ‘I forgot my hall ticket,” a candidate said. 5. Simple pastíPast perfect A candidate said that he / she had forgotten his hail ticket. 6. Past continuous “I was watering the plants in the garden,” she said. 6. Past continuous / Past per.cont. She said that she had been watering the plants in the garden. 7. Simple future “We will move to Hyderabad next year, “Rajitha said. 7. Rajitha said that they would move to Hyderabad the following year. 8. The English teacher said to the class, “I will tell you the difference between the two sentences.” 8. The English teacher told the class that he would tell them the difference between the two sentences.

III. Study the following examples and observe how questions are changed into indirect speech.

IV. All the verbs are changed into infinitives [to + verb (v1)] while reporting imperative sentences.

Exclanations :

 Direct Speech Indirect Speech 1. “Oh ! They have lost the match,” he said. 1. He expressed regret that they had lost the match. 2. “Hurrah ! We have won the match,” said the boys. 2. The boys exdamed with delight that they had won the match. 3. My brothers said to me, “Better luck next time.” 3. My brothers wished me better luck next time.

Some More Examples :
1. He said to me, ‘You are lucky.” (D.S)
He told me (that) I was lucky. (I.S)

2. He said, “My father went to Chennai.” (D.S)
He said (that) his father had gone to Chennai. (I.S)

3. He said, “The sun rises in the east”. (D.S)
He said that the sun rises in the east. (I.S)

4. He said, “Kutub Minar is in Delhi.” (D.S)
He said that Kutub Minar is in Delhi. (I.S)

5. He said, “1 always go to bed early.” (D.S)
He said he always goes to bed earlier (I.S)

6. He said to me, “Do you want coffee ?” (D.S)
He asked me if I wanted coffee. (I.S)

7. He said to me, “Where did you go ?” (D.S)

8. He said to his son, “Go out and play.” (D.S)
He told his son to go out and play. (I.S)

9. He said, “Don’t disturb me.” (D.S)
He instructed him not to disturb him. (I.S)

10. He said, “What a terrible storm it is !” (D.S)
He exclaimed that it was a terrible storm. (I.S)

11. He said to her, “How foolish of you !” (D.S)
He exclaimed that she was very foolish. (I.S)

12. He said, “Alas ! What a tragedy.” (D.S)
He exclaimed with sorrow that it was a great tragedy. (I.S)

EXERCISES

I. Report the following statements.

1. Sunil said to his daughter, “I will take care of you.”
2. The M.L.A. said to villagers, ‘You have every right to question me.”
3. The Inspector said to the constable, “I am your boss.”
4. It is better for you to join M.PC.” said Bharath’s mother.
5. The principal said to the lecturers, You should maintain records.”
6. “I have been waiting here for you for one hour, “Vasundhara said to Vandana.
7. Kranthi said to the Inspector, “I met with an accident while taking a turn.”
8. He said, “I have lost my bag.”
9. The girl said, “I can change any given sentence into reported speech.”
10. “I am your fan,” said the boy to Allu Aijun.
1. Sunil told his daughter that he would take care of her.
2. Tlje M.L.A told villagers that they had every right to question him.
3. The Inspector told the constable that he was his boss.
4. Bharath’s mother said that it would be better for him to join MPC.
5. The principal told the lecturers that they should maintain records.
6. Vasundhara told Vandana that she had been waiting there for her for an hour.
7. Kranthi informed the Inspector that he had met with an accident while taking a turn.
8. He said that he had lost his bag.
9. The girl said that she could change any given sentence into reported speech.
10. The boy told Allu Aijun that he was his fan.

II. Match the reported clause of Set n A with each reported statement of the direct speech in Set n B and then change the sentence into the reported speech.

1. The palmist told a woman that she would become a good writer.
2. In a press meet, the Union Minister promised that the government would take all precautionary measures regarding cyclone.
3. Dr. Gopal told them that the operation was successful and the patient was out of danger.
4. The lawyer told the client that they could file an appeal in the High Court.
5. The boy came late to the class and told his teacher that his father had been ill for a few days.

III. Report the following questions in indirect speech.

1. A visitor said to me, “Are there any places worth seeing in Warangal ?”
2. The mother said to her son, “When will you have your breakfast ?”
3. The shopkeeper said to the customer, “Shall I show you the latest model ?”
4. I said to the shop assistant, “What is the price of this dress ?”
5. A classmate said to me, “Is your father a businessman ?”
6. Harika said to her friend, “Will you come to my home tomorrow ?”
7. The passenger said to the driver, “Does the bus stop at the crossroads ?”
8. A girl said to the principal, “Do I need to be a postgraduate to become an IAS officer ?”
9. The father said to his daughter, “Who teaches you English, Anitha ?”
10. The teacher said to Kavitha, “What does the word ‘corruption’ mean ?”
1. A visitor asked me if there were any worth seeing places in Warangal.
2. The mother asked her son when he would have his breakfast.
3. The shopkeeper asked the customer if he could show him the latest model.
4. I asked the shop assistant what the price of that dress was.
6. Harika asked her friend if she would come to her home the following day.
7. The passenger asked the driver if the bus would stop at the crossroads.
8. A girl asked the principal if she needed to be a postgraduate to become an IAS officer.
9. The father asked his daughter Anita who would teach them English.
10. The teacher asked Kavitha what the word corruption meant.

IV. Change the following imperatives into the indirect speech.

1. Hima said, “Get out from here.”
3. Hardik said to Annu, “Go and study.”
4. Nani said to me, “Exercise daily.”
5. Father said to Swetha, “Switch off the fan.
1. Hima ordered him/them to get out from there.
2. Neha requested her mother to give her mobile.
3. Hardik asked Annu to go and study.
4. Nani advised me to exercise daily.
5. Father asked Swetha to switch off the fan

V. Change the following exclamations into the indirect speech.

1. Nivya said to her sister, “How interesting the serial is !”
2. My friend said to me, “What a wonderful opportunity it is !”
3. “Oh ! he is dead,” the doctor said.
4. “Thank goodness ! I’ve passed my exams,” my son said.
5. “Hurray ! I’ve got first rank in the entrance examination !” my friend said.
6. “How awful! She has missed the chance,” Mahesh said.
7. A visitor said, “What sultry weather !”
8. “What a pity ! Many passengers died in the accident,” said an eye witness.
9. Akshay said to his partner, “Bad luck, never mind.”
10. “Oh ! What a beautiful place it is !” he said.
1. Nivya exclaimed to her sister that the serial was very interesting.
2. My friend exclaimed to me that it was a wonderful opportunity.
4. My son happily said that he had passed his exams.
5. My friend cheerfully declared that he had got the first rank in the entrance examination.
7. A visitor exclaimed that it was very sultry weather.
8. An eye witness exclaimed sadly that many passengers had died in the accident.
9. Akshay told his partner that it was their bad luck and said better not mind that.
10. He exclaimed that it was a very beautiful place.

VI. Report the following sentences.

1. A father said to his son. “Ramu, concentrate on your studies now.”
2. “What a wonderful poem it is !” said the teacher.
3. The principal said to the student, “Vinay, can you spell this word ?”
4. “Is there any train to Mumbai now ?” I asked the enquiry clerk.
5. “How much time does a ray of the sun take to reach the earth ?” the quiz master asked the team.
6. “Alas ! India has lost a famous scientist,” said the Prime Minister on the death of Abdul Kalam.
7. “How would you help develop the company ?” the interview board member said to the can-didate.
8. “If I get a job, I will arrange a grand party,” said Spandana.
9. “Stand where you are,” the officer said to the cadets.
10. “Don’t make friends with bad boys,” said the mother to her son.
11. “Hearty welcome to our village !” Radha said to her friends.
12. “Hurrah ! We have defeated Pakistan in T 20 too,” said Kohli.
13. “Please be seated. My father is sleeping,” said the girl to the visitors.
14. “I am a pure vegetarian,” Gandhi said.
15. “How exciting it is to see Telangana as a separate state !” said a hundred-year old man.
16. “Remember, Man is mortal,” said the Swamiji.
17. He said, “We need not wait here for the bus.”
18. “While I was going to see Deepthi, it started raining,” Kiran said.
19. The doctor said, “Sorry, I cannot help it.”
20. “Nothing is in our hands,” said the priest.
1. A father advised his son Ramu to concentrate on his studies then.
2. The teacher exclaimed that it was a very wonderful poem.
3. The principal asked Vinay if he could spell that word.
4. I asked the enquiry clerk if there was any train to Mumbai then.
5. The quiz master asked the team how much time a ray of the sun took to reach the earth.
6. The Prime Minister said on the death of Abdul Kalam that India had lost a famous scientist.
7. The interview board member asked the candidate how he would help the company develop.
8. Spandana said that if she got a job she would arrange a grand party.
9. The officer ordered the cadets to stand where they were.
10. The mother advised her son not to make friends with bad boys.
11. Radha extended hearty welcome to her friends to her village.
12. Kohli gladly said that they had defeated Pakistan in T20 too.
13. The girl requested the visitors to be seated and informed them that her father was sleeping.
14. Gandhi said that he was a pure vegetarian.
15. A hundred – year old man exclaimed that it was very exciting to see Telangana as a separate state.’
16. The Swamiji said emphatically that man is mortal.
17. He said that they needed not wait there for the bus.
18. Kiran said that while he was going to see Deepthi, it had started raining.
19. The doctor apologetically said that he couldnot help it.
20. The priest said that nothing was in their hands.

VII. Change the following sentences into the indirect speech.

1. I said to her, “I had already applied for a job.”
2. You said to me, “She loves you.” * ‘
3. We said to him, “Can we use your phone ?”
4. The teacher said to her, ‘Why did you fail the exam ?”
5. She will say to me, “How do you solve the problem ?”
6. I said to them, “I don’t ever waste my time.”
7. You said to me, “I have not yet met them.”
8. The minister said, “The problem will surely be looked into.”
9. They said to rile, “Have you been working here since 2015 ?”
10. We said to them, ‘We were watching a movie.”
11. She said, “I went to the market yesterday.”
12. They said to us, “We will be waiting for you.”
13. John said to her, “1 will call a doctor for you.”
14. I said to her, “Alas, I am undone !”
15. She said to him, “Please complete the job.”
16. He shouted at them, “Shut up!”
17. The officer said to him, “Don’t repeat this mistake in the future.”
18. The teacher said, “Akbar died in 1605 AD.”
19. She said to her, “Knowledge is power.”
20. A soft voice said, “What a cold day !”
1. I told her that I had already applied for a job.
2. You told me that she loved me.
3. We asked him if we could use his phone.
5. She will ask me how I will solve the problem.
6. I told them that I never wasted my time. (OR) I told them that I never waste my time.
7. You told me that you had not yet met them.
8. The minister said that the problem would surely be looked into.
9. They asked me if I had been working there since 2015.
10. We told them that we had been watching a movie.
11. She said that she had gone to the market the previous day.
12. They told us that they would be waiting for us.
13. John told her that he would call a doctor for her.
14. I exclaimed with sorrow to her that I was undone.
15. She requested him politely to complete the job.
16. He ordered them loudly to shut up.
17. The officer warned him not to repeat that mistake in the future.
19. She told her that knowledge is power.
20. A soft voice exclaimed that it was a very cold day.

VIII. Change the following sentences into the other speech.

1. A good teacher will say frankly and clearly, “I don’t know, 1 cannot answer that question.”
2. I asked my Biology teacher what I should do to save it.
3. I asked my grandmother how she got to be so wise.
4. Thimmakka concludes, “Even one sapling each could make a better place for our children.”
5. Box : Stop ! Can you inform me who the individual is that I invariably encounter going downstairs when I’m coming up, and coming upstairs when I’m going down ?
1. A good teacher will say frankly and clearly that he/she doesn’t know. He/She will add that he/ she cannot answer that question. (I.S)
2. I said to my Biology teacher, “What shuld I do to save it ?” (D.S)
3. I said to my grandmother, “How did you get to be so wise” ? (D.S)
4. Thimmakka concludes that even one sapling each could make a better place for our children. (I.S)
5. Box asked (her) to stop. He further asked her if she could inform him who that individual was that he invariably encountered going downstairs when he was coming up and coming upstairs when he was going down. (I.S)

C. DEGREES OF COMPARISON

Man craves for variety. He knows that variety is the spice of life. Hence he tries to express the same idea in various different ways. The result is the tradition of describing the quality, quantity size etc., of some thing or person in three different ways. Most adjectives and some adverbs have three different forms. They are positive, comparative and superlative. They are known as the three degrees of comparision.

(ఒక వ్యక్తి యొక్క వస్తున్న యొక్క గుణ, పరిమాణాలను మూడు భిన్న రూపాలలో వ్యక్తీకరించడం ఆనవాయితీ. ఈ రూపాలనే Degrees of comparison అని పిలుస్తారు)

When the comparison is among a minimum of three persons/things, that can be ex-pressed in all the three degrees. If the compared persons are two only, the superlative degree is not possible. When we talk of the quality, quantity of a single item, only positive degree is possible.

Interchange of Degrees of comparison :
Transforming one sentence from the Superlative Degree to Comparative Degree involves the following steps.

1. First, remove ‘the’ that is used before the superlative adjective, while changing it into the comparative.
2. Write the comparative form of the adjective.
Ex : Praveen is the youngest boy in the class. (S.D.)
Praveen is younger than any other? boy in the class.

To change that sentence into the positive :

1. Begin the sentence with ‘No other’.
2. Secondly, place the phrase after the superlative adjective after ‘No other’.
3. Use ‘so + adj in positive Degree + as’ after the verb.
4. Place the subject in the S.D after ‘as’ in RD.
Ex : He is the richest man in our town. (S.D.)

Transforming one sentence from the superlative Degree to comparative or positive Degree involves the following steps.

Sentences with ‘one of phrase in the Superlative degree follow a slightly different wording. This is as explained here under.

Some sentences show the comparison between only two things/persons. In such cases, the superlative is not possible. The interchange is made as shown here.

EXAMPLES

Change the following sentences into other degrees.

Question 1.
Bengaluru is as cool as Ooty. (P.D)
Ooty is not cooler than Bengaluru. (C.D)

Question 2.
Australia is the biggest island in the world. (S.D)
Australia is bigger than any other island in the world. (C.D)
No other island in the world is so big as Australia. (PD)

Question 3.
The moon is brighter than the stars. (C.D)
The stars are not so bright as the moon. (P.D)

Question 4.
There is no vice so bad as drink. (P.D)
Drink is worse than any other vice. (C.D)

Question 5.
Kashmir is the most beautiful place in India. (S.D)
No other place in India is so beautiful as Kashmir. (P.D)
Kashmir is more beautiful than any other place in India. (C.D)

Question 6.
Silver is not so precious as gold. (P.D)
Gold is more precious than silver. (C.D)

Question 7.
Kumble is one of the ablest bowlers. (S.D)
Very few bowlers are so able as Kumble. (P.D)
Kumble is abler them most other bowlers. (C.D)

Question 8.
The lion is more ferocious than any other animal. (C.D)
The lion is the most ferocious of all the animals. (S.D)
No other animal is so ferocious as the lion. (P.D)

Question 9.
The sword is not so mighty as the pen. (P.D)
The pen is mightier than the sword. (C.D).

Question 10.
Copper is more useful than most other metals. (C.D)
Copper is one of the most useful metals. (S.D)
Very few metals are so useful as copper. (P.D)

Question 11.
Mount Everest i.s higher than any other peak in the world. (C.D)
Mount Everest is the highest of all the peaks in the world. (S.D)
No other peak in the world is so high as Mount Everest. (P.D)

Question 12.
I like you better than him. (C.D)
I didn’t like him as well as I like you. (P.D)

Question 13.
A deer runs faster than a horse. (C.D)
A horse does not run so fast as a deer. (P.D)

Question 14.
Sangeetha is the tallest girl in the class. (S.D)
No other girl in the class is so tall as Sangeetha. (P.D)

Question 15.
This is one of the most powerful earthquakes that occurred. (S.D)
Ans. This is more powerful than most other earthquakes that occurred. (C.D)
Very few earthquakes that occurred are as powerful as this earthquake. (P.D)

More Examples :

1. For me, dancing is easier to learn than singing. (C.D)
For me, singing is not as easy to learn as dancing. (P.D)

2. Singing is the best of all art forms. (S.D)
Singing is better than any other art forms. (C.D)
No other art form is as good as singing. (P.D)

3. The sentence is more impressive than the earlier one. (C.D)
The earlier sentence is not so impressive as this one. (P.D)

4. A car, of course, is costlier than a bike. (C.D)
A bike, of course, is not as costly as a car. (P.D)

5. Uttar Pradesh is the largest state in India. (S.D)
Uttar Pradesh is larger than any other state in India. (C.D)
No other state in India is as large as Uttar Pradesh. (P.D)

6. Bill Gates is the wealthiest man in the world. (S.D)
Bill Gates is wealthier than any other man in the world. (C.D)
No other man in the world is as wealthy as Bill Gates. (P.D)

7. English is the most widely used language in the world. (S.D)
English is more widely used than any other language in the world. (C.D)
No other language in the world is as widely used as English. (P.D)

Types of transformation :

EXERCISES

I. Change the following sentences into other Degrees.

1. LIC is one of the most popular insurance companies in India.
2. The custard apple is better for health than the apple.
3. A computer works faster than the human brain.
4. A Governor is sometimes more powerful than a Chief Minister.
5. The teaching profession is the best of all professions.
6. Laxmi Mittal is one of the most popular industrialists.
7: No other bank in India has as many branches as SBI.
8. Virus infects a person faster than bacteria.
9. Cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases.
10. No other boy in the class is as active as Surya Teja.
11. The Amazon is one of the longest rivers in the world.
12. No other animal lives as long as the turtle.
13. Jupiter is bigger than any other planet.
14. A rainbow is one of the most beautiful sights in nature.
15. Very few English poets are as great as John Keats.
16. The lotus is the most beautiful flower.

17. Mathematics is more difficult than most other subjects.
18. Shimla is cooler than Ooty.
19. He can’t run as fast as I.
20. Vinay is not as mischievous as some other boys in the college.
21. There are some vegetarian food as healthy as eggs.
22. Of all the Telugu singers S.R Balasubramanyam has the most melodious voice.
23. Health is more important than wealth.
24. I cannot speak as fast as you.
25. Very few TV channels are as popular as E TV.
1. Very few insurance companies in India are as popular as LIC. (P.D)
LIC is more popular than many other insurance companies in India. (C.D)

2. The apple is not as good for health as the custard apple. (P.D)

3. The human brain does not work as fast as a computer. (P.D)

4. Sometimes a Chief Minister is not as powerful as a Governor. (P.D)

5. The teaching profession is better than any other profession. (C.D)
No other profession is as good as the teaching profession. (P.D)

6. Very few industrialists are as popular as Laxmi Mittal. (P.D)
Laxmi Mittal is more popular than many other industrialists. (C.D)

7. SBI has the most number of branches. (S.D)
SBI has more branches than any other bank in India. (C.D)

8. Bacteria does not infect a person as fast as virus. (P.D)

9. Cancer is more dangerous than many other diseases. (C.D)
Very few diseases are as dangerous as cancer. (P.D)

10. Surya Teja is more active than any other boy in the class. (C.D)
Surya Teja is the most active boy in the class. (S.D)

11. The Amazon is longer than many other rivers in the world. (C.D)
Very few rivers in the world are as long as the Amazon. (P.D)

12. The turtle lives longer than any other animal. (C.D)
The turtle lives the longest of all animals. (S.D)

13. No other planet is as big as Jupiter. (P.D)
Jupiter is the biggest planet. (S.D)

14. A rainbow is more beautiful than many other sights in nature. (C.D)
Very few sights in nature are as beautiful as a rainbow. (P.D)

15. John Keats is one of the greatest poets of English. (S.D)
John Keats is greater than many other poets of English. (C.D)

16. The lotus is more beautiful than any other flower. (C.D)
No other flower is as beautiful as the lotus. (P.D)

17. Mathematics is one of the most difficult subjects. (S.D)
Very few subjects are as difficult as Mathematics. (P.D)

18. Ooty is not as cool as Shimla. (P.D)

19. I can run faster than he. (C.D)

20. Vinay is one of the most mischievous boys in the college. (S.D)
Vinay is more mischievous than many other boys in the college. (C.D)

21. Eggs are not healthier than some vegetarian foods. (C.D)

22. No other Telugu singer has a voice as melodious as S.R Balu’s. (P.D)
S.R Balu’s voice is more melodious than that of any other Telugu singer. (C.D)

23. Wealth is not as important as health. (P.D)

24. You can speak faster than I. (C.D)

25. E TV is more popular than many other TV channels. (C.D)
E TV is one of the most popular TV channels (S.D)

II. Rewrite the following comparisons as directed.

1. The taste of Pizza is more pleasing than that of Burger. (into the other degree)
2. Sheela is getting smarter and smarter than Neela. (into the other degree)
3. Raj is one of the bravest fighters. (into comparative)
4. Radha speaks more fluently than Sudha. (into the other degree)
5. ’ Riding a horse is not as easy as riding a motorbike. (into the other degree)
6. ‘Silence’ is the most potent weapon to win an argument. (into positive)
7. Rachana’s sister is taller than yours. (into the other degree)
8. Dogs don’t look as cute as rabbits. (into the other degree)
9. He is not the worst student in the class. (into comparative)
10. Very few heroes are as great as Gandhiji in the world history. (into superlative)
1. The taste of Burger is not so pleasing as that of Pizza. (P.D)
2. Neela is not getting as smart as Sheela. (P.D)

3. Raj is braver than any other fighter. (C.D)
No other fighter is as brave as Raj. (P.D)

4. Sudha does not speak as fluently as Radha. (P.D)

5. Riding a motorbike is easier than riding a horse. (C.D)

6. No other weapon is so potent as silence to win an argument. (P.D)
Silence is more potent than any other weapon to win an argument. (C.D)

7. Your sister is not so tall as Rachana’s sister. (P.D)
8. Rabbits look cuter than dogs. (C.D)

9. He is not worse than most students in the class. (C.D)
Many students in the class are as bad as he. (P.D)

10. Gandhi is one of the greatest heroes in the world history. (S.D)
Gandhi is greater than many other heroes in the world history. (C.D)

III. Change the following sentences into other degrees of comparison.

1. Bus journey is not as comfortable as train journey.
2. Radhakrishnan is more highly respected than any other teacher.
3. Robert Frost is one of the best American poets.
4. No other road in the world is as long as the Pan American Highway.
5. Kashmir is one of the coolest places in India.
6. A foolish friend can be more dangerous than a wise enemy.
7. Money is not as important as character.
8. Modern culture is not as stable as Traditional culture.
9. For many Indians, cricket gives greater pleasure than football.
10. Natural flowers appeal more to our senses than artificial flowers.
1. Train journey is more comfortable than bus journey. (C.D)

2. Radhakrishnan is the most highly respected teacher. (S.D)
No other teacher is so highly respected as Radhakrishnan. (P.D)

3. Robert Frost is better than many other American poets. (C.D)
Very few American poets are as good as Robert Frost. (P.D)

4. Pan American Highway is longer than any other road in the world. (C.D)
Pan American highway is the longest road in the world. (S.D)

5. Kashmir is cooler than many other places in India. (C.D)
Very few places in India are so cool as Kashmir. (P.D)

6. A wise enemy cannot be so dangerous as a foolish friend. (P.D)
7. Character is more important than money. (C.D)
8. Traditional culture is more stable than modern culture. (C.D)
9. For many Indians, football doesn’t give as much pleasure as cricket. (P.D)
10. Artificial flowers do not appeal to our senses as much as natural flowers. (P.D)

D. QUESTION TAGS

Question tags are short questions added to statements. They seek confirmation or agreement. (ఏకీభావాన్ని లేదా ద్రువీకరణను ఆశిస్తూ, ఒక వాక్యానికి అనుబంధంగా చేర్చబడే చిన్న ప్రశ్నలే Question tags.)

Question tags have a fixed structure. It is represented as : Helping verb + (n’t) + pronoun ? ((n’t) in brackets means it is optioned.)
e.g. She loves her children, doesn’t she?
(Q.T.) does (H.V.) n’t she (pronoun)

1. While constructing a tag, selecting the suitable helping verb is the first and the most important step. If the given sentence has a helping verb, then that helping verb is used in the tag too.
E.g : She has answered all the questions, hasn’t she?
has → Helping Verb in the sentence used in the tag too.

When the sentence doesn’t have a helping verb, the verb is either in the simple present Or in the simple past and in the affirmative. In case of the simple present, the suitable helping verb is “do/does”. If the verb in the sentence is in the simple past, then we must use ‘did’ in the tag.
Eg : a) She hates smokers, doesn’t she ? Simple present, hence ‘does’
b) They grow vegetables, do n’t they ? Simple present
c) He sold his car, didn’t he ? Simple past; hence ‘did’.

2. The second step is to decide whether to use ‘n’t’ or not. The guiding principle is quite simple. If the given sentence doesn’t have ‘rio/not’, use ‘n’t’ is the tag. If the given sentence has ‘no/not’ then the tag doesn’t have ‘n’t’.
Eg : a) He was sleeping in the class, was n’t he ?
‘not’ is not used n’t in the tag
b) They don’t grow paddy, do they?
‘n’t’ in sentence ‘n’t’ not used in tag
Remember to use the short form ‘n’t’ in the tag.

3. The last part of the tag as a pronoun. This corresponds to the subject of the given sentence. If the subject of the sentence is a pronoun, the same pronoun is used in the tag. If the subject is a noun, select a suitable pronoun as shown below.

 SI.No. Subject in the sentence Pronoun used in the tag 1. Name of a man he 2. Name of a woman she 3. Name of a single thing it 4. Name referring to, a group of persons, places, things they

Eg : a) Gourav is a good cricketer, isn’t he? ?
b) Sania Mirza played well, didn’t she ?
c) Ooty is a beautiful hill station, isn’t it ?
d) Mangoes aren’t good this season, are they ?

4. Note that ‘amn’t’ is not used. Instead, aren’t is used.
Eg : lam rather slow, aren’t I ?

5. Imperative sentences take ‘will’ as the helping verb in the tags.
Eg : a) Close the door, Won’t you ? (Will + n’t = won’t)
b) Don’t leave the place, will you ?

6. Sentences expressing proposals with the help of “Let us ……………..” have for their tags “Shall we?”
Eg : Let us walk fast, shall we ?

EXAMPLES

1. Srinivasa Ramanujan is a famous mathematician, isn’t he ?
2. Normally players have a lot of practice, don’t they ?
3. Sania Mirza is not a cricketer, is she ?
4. She can speak English, can’t she ?
5. He should believe us, shouldn’t he ?
6. We must all learn English, mustn’t we ?
7. The Governor administers the oath of office to ministers, doesn’t she / he ?
8. He does not support any one, does he ?
9. Most of the villagers depend on agriculture, don’t they ?
10. They do not seem to lead a happy life, do they ?
11. Children love to play with toys, don’t they ?
12. On their picnic, the children did not have a chance to play in the garden, did they ?
13. The children are not yet back home, are they ?
14. Do me a favour, Raju, can you ?
15. Take a right decision, won’t you ?
16. Don’t waste time, will you ?
17. Let’s understand their problems, shall we ?
18. No one complained against us, did they ?
19. Everyone appreciated his performance, didn’t they ?
20. Someone should take the initiative, shouldn’t they ?
21. Nothing is impossible, is it ?
22. There will be problems in that case, won’t there ?
23. One can achieve anything by faith, can’t one ?
24. I am not disturbing you, am I ?
25. It is used for present actions, isn’t it ?
26. You understand the point, don’t you ?
27. You are attending a job interview tomorrow, aren’t you ?
28. It is clear to you now, isn’t it ?
29. They are ready, aren’t they ?
30. They are not ready, are they ?
31. He did not attend the class, did he ?
32. Oh, you got two prizes, did you ? (Special case. Positive statement, positive tag. Express reaction to a surprising news.)
33. I am going home, aren’t I ? (Note that ‘aren’t is used instead of ‘amn’t.)

EXERCISES

I. Add an appropriate question tag to each one of the following statements.

1. Sandeep has attended all classes, ……………….. ?
2. We are lucky to be born in India, ………………..?
3. English is an interesting language, ……………….. ?
4. He was very busy yesterday, ……………….. ?
5. I am very happy now, ……………….. ?
6. I can face challenges, ……………….. ?
7. Ravi always thinks positively, ……………….. ?
8. He does not criticize, ……………….. ?
9. Some people always depend on others, ……………….. ?
10. Discipline must be maintained at any cost, ……………….. ?
11. Let us keep to the pavement, ……………….. ?
12. Don’t blame others for everything, ……………….. ?
13. One can do wonders with knowledge, ……………….. ?
14. Nothing is permanent except change, ……………….. ?
15. Students are our best judges, ……………….. ?
1. hasn’t he ?
2. aren’t we ?
3. isn’t it ?
4. wasn’t he ?
5. aren’t I ?
6. can’t I ?
7. doesn’t he ?
8. does he ?
9. Don’t they
10. mustn’t it be ?
11. shall we ?
12. will you ?
13. can’t one ?
14. is it ?
15. aren’t they ?

II. Add an appropriate question tag to each one of the following statements.

1. You don’t lime me, ……………….. ?
2. It is not raining, ……………….. ?
3. You have done your homework, ……………….. ?
4. I am not late, ……………….. ?
5. I am invited to your party, ………………..?
6. You like fast food, ……………….. ?
7. You will come to my party, ……………….. ?
8. You remembered to feed the cat, ……………….. ?
9. Let’s play tennis, ……………….. ?
10. There’s a problem here, ……………….. ?
11. He never says a word, ……………….. ?
12. Nobody came to your party, ……………….. ?
13. Don’t forget, ……………….. ?
14. You think you’re clever, ……………….. ?
15. So you think you’re clever, ……………….. ?
16. We don’t have to go to the party, ……………….. ?
17. It stopped raining, ……………….. ?
18. Have a seat, ……………….. ?
20. Children, be quiet, ……………….. ?
1. do you
2. is it
3. haven’t you
4. am I (Note . possible tag-am ; negative tag are in the place of ami
5. aren’t I
6. don’t you
7. won’t you
8. didn’t you
9. shall we
10. isn’t there
11. does he (never = not; negative statement; hence positive tag)
12. did they
13. will you
14. don’t you (you think is the main clause)
15. do you (expressing sudden reaction)
16. do we
17. didn’t it
18. won’t you
19. will you
20. will you

III. Add an appropriate question tag to each one of the following statements.

2. Rahul’s first rank is at stake, ……………….. ?
3. The noise in my ears was that of the faithful Oxford crowd, ……………….. ?
4. The stop-watches held the answer, ……………….. ?
5. It belongs to both of you, ……………….. ?
1. am I (unable = not able)
2. isn’t it
3. wasn’t it
4. didn’t they
5. doesn’t it ?

## TS Inter 1st Year English Grammar Correction of Errors in Sentences

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 1st Year English Study Material Grammar Correction of Errors in Sentences Exercise Questions and Answers.

## TS Inter 1st Year English Grammar Correction of Errors in Sentences

Q.No. 14 (4 × 1 = 4 Marks)

Exercises

I. Correct the underlined parts of the following sentences :

2. He has bought expensive furnitures.
3. Children should learn the alphabets with joy.
4. He has deep knowledges of various fields.
5. The sceneries of Darjeeling are very beautiful.
7. We must express thank to those who help us.
8. Economics are an interesting subject.
9. Athletics are an interesting sport.
10. The news of the earthquake have spread like wildfire.
11. Measles are an infectious disease.
12. Ocean sands are not used for construction.
13. C.V. Raman’s knowledges of all branches of physics are amazing.
14. There is a scarcity of man-servants nowadays.
15. Many passer-bys observed the accident.
16. Mouses have spoiled the crop.
17. There are five womans in the team.
18. My cousin brother is a doctor.
19. We should wash our foots before coming into the house.
20. He has many sheeps.

21. One of my classmates are an army officer.
22. One should respect her teachers.
23. Every men are responsible for this situation.
24. His both sons are lawyers.
25. The principal and the chairman has attended the meeting.
26. Each of them were given a gift.
27. Student’s must avail the opportunities.
28. The two players blamed one another for their defeat.
29. All Indians must respect each other.
30. Yourself are responsible for your future.
31. There are no less than ten employed persons in their village.
32. He and me are brothers.
33. As there are only few students, I can interact with them easily.
34. My all friends are very active.
35. Gandhi is more truthful than any political leader.
36. This is taller than many buildings in Hyderabad.
37. Raghu is my older brother.
38. The streets of Hyderabad are wider than Warangal.
39. Suma is an popular anchor.
40. I waited for a hour.
41. Sun rises in east.
42. Onions cost Rs. 20 kilogram.
43. They are staying in the same flat for the last many years.
44. How long are you waiting here ?
45. He is interested to do a job.
46. They have moved to the new house last week.
47. He is having many imported clothes.
48. As soon as I opened the doors, the birds flu away.
49. If I will stand on my own legs, my parents will feel happy.

50. If you consult me, I would have advised you what to do.
51. He is visiting the library daily.
52. He walks very fastly.
53. We don’t , hardly believe it.
54. They don’t do anything careful.
55. She scarce attends classes.
56. He is walking very slow.
57. The property was divided between the four brothers.
58. I prefer fruits than sweets.
59. He is afraid with darkness.
60. We entered into the hall to watch the play.
61. Beside being a poet, Tagore is also a short story writer.
62. The shops will be open between 10 a.m. to 8 p.m.
63. Either you must take up a job or start a business.
64. Neither she drinks tea nor coffee.
65. Sheela is as proud like a peacock.
66. They asked me that where SBI was.
67. They asked me what was my name.
69. We look forward to meet the minister.
70. I know them for the last many years.
71. Why is she hating classical music ?
72. It is raining since yesterday.
73. I am good in English.
74. If cleanliness will be maintained, we will be healthy.
75. We had seen them two weeks ago.
76. The river has overflown its bank in many places.
77. He has hanged his coat on a nail.
78. All banks are open from 10.30 a.m. and 4 p.m.
79. He is not an expert in grammar, isn’t it ?
80. Children are fond for chocolates.
2. He has bought expensive furniture.
3. Children should learn the alphabet with joy.
4. He has deep knowledge of various fields.
5. The scenery of Darjeeling are very beautiful.
7. We must express thanks to those who help us.
8. Economics is an interesting subject.
9. Athletics is an interesting sport.
10. The news of the earthquake has spread like wildfire.

11. Measles is an infectious disease.
12. Ocean sands is not used for construction.
13. C.V. Raman’s knowledge of all branches of physics are amazing.
14. There is a scarcity of men-servants nowadays.
15. Many passer-by observed the accident.
16. Mice have spoiled the crop.
17. There are five womens in the team.
18. My cousin is a doctor.
19. We should wash our feet before coming into the house.
20. He has many sheep.
21. One of my classmates is an army officer.
22. One should respect one’s teachers.
23. Every men is responsible for this situation.
24. Both his sons are lawyers.
25. The principal and the chairman have attended the meeting.
26. Each of them was given a gift.
27. Student’s must avail themselves of the opportunities.
28. The two players blamed each another for their defeat.
29. All Indians must respect one other.
30. You are responsible for your future.
31. There are no fewer than ten employed persons in their village.
32. He and I are brothers.
33. As there are only a few students, I can interact with them easily.
34. All my friends are very active.
35. Gandhi is more truthful than any other political leader.
36. This is taller than many other buildings in Hyderabad.
37. Raghu is my elder brother.
38. The streets of Hyderabad are wider than those of Warangal.

39. Suma is a popular anchor.
40. I waited for an hour.
41. The sun rises in east.
42. Onions cost Rs. 20 a kilogram.
43. They have been staying in the same flat for the last many years.
44. How long have you been waiting here ?
45. He is interested in doing a job.
46. They moved to the new house last week.
47. He has many imported clothes.
48. As soon as I opened the doors, the birds flew away.
49. If I stand on my own legs, my parents will feel happy.
50. If you had consulted me, I would have advised you what to do.
51. He visits the library daily.
52. He walks very fast.
53. We don’t beleive it/. We hardly believe it.
54. They don’t do anything careful.
55. She scarcely attends classes.
56. He is walking very slowly.
57. The property was divided among the four brothers.
58. I prefer fruits to sweets.
59. He is afraid of darkness.
60. We entered the the hall to watch the play.
61. Besides being a poet, Tagore is also a short story writer.
62. The shops will be open between 10 a.m. and 8 p.m.
63. You must either take up a job or start a business.
64. She drinks neither tea nor coffee.

65. Sheela is as proud as a peacock.
66. They asked me where SBI was.
67. They asked me what my name was.
69. We look forward to meetimg the minister.
70. I have know them for the last many years.
71. Why does she hate classical music ?
72. It has been raining since yesterday.
73. I am good at English.
74. If cleanliness is maintained, we will be healthy.
75. We saw them two weeks ago.
76. The river has overflowed its bank in many places.
77. He has hung his coat on a nail.
78. All banks are open from 10.30 a.m. to 4 p.m.
79. He is not an expert in grammar, is he ?
80. Children are fond of chocolates.

II. Correct the following sentences :

1. Very good morning.
2. What is your good name ?
3. Why you are late today ?
4. The staff meeting has been pre-poned.
5. 1 will report it to the concerned teacher.
6. We go home by walk.
7. Where you come from ?
8. 1 do not know what is your name.
9. He went to the back-side of the house.
11. This road is more shorter than that.
12. We often chit-chat with our friends.
14. I and my wife went to a movie.
15. Mohan and myself will come.
16. I’m having a scooter.
17. This costed me a lot.

18. I doubt that he will succeed.
19. We are living in Bengaluru since 2015.
20. We have a lot of furnitures in our house.
1. Good morning.
2. What is your name ?
3. Why are late today ?
4. The staff meeting has been advanced.
5. I will report it to the teacher concerned.
6. We go home on foot.
7. Where are you coming from ?
8. 1 do not know what your name is.
9. He went to the back of the house.
11. This road is shorter than that.
12. We often chat with our friends.
13. Please switch of the TV.
14. My wife and I went to a movie.
15. Mohan and I will come.
16. 1 have a scooter.
17. This cost me a lot.
18. I doubt if he will succeed.
19. We have been living in Bengaluru since 2015.
20. We have a lot of furniture in our house.

III. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors :

1. Can you read the Urdu alphabets ?
2. The police is investigating the case.
4. Look at the man in the blue jean.
5. Have you seen the table of content of this textbook ?
6. Mumps are a kind of disease.
7. There were a series of programmes to mark the occasion.
8. She bought a toothpaste.
9. This box has twelve dozens of apples.
10. The athlete ran a four-miles race.

11. I received five thousands rupees from the manager.
12. Most male deers have horns.
13. Eight hundred rupees are too much for a pen.
14. A black and white dog are following me.
15. A black and a white dog is following me.
16. Many a man were cheated in this way.
17. I lost my all belongings.
18. Neither he nor his wife have arrived yet.
19. More than one person are working here.
20. The first inning is over.
1. Can you read the Urdu alphabet ?
2. The police are investigating the case.
4. Look at the man in the blue jeans.
6. Mumps is a kind of disease.
7. There was a series of programmes to mark the occasion.
8. She bought a tube of toothpaste.
9. This box has twelve dozen of apples.
10. The athlete ran a four-mile race.
11. I received five thousand rupees from the manager.
12. Most male deer have horns.
13. Eight hundred rupees is too much for a pen.
14. A black and white dog is following me.
15. A black and a white dog are following me.
16. Many a man was cheated in this way.
17. I lost all my belongings.
18. Neither he nor his wife has arrived yet.
19. More than one person is working here.
20. The first innings is over.

IV. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors :

1. It is myself.
2. She and me are twins.
3. Each of these girls have wide eyes.
4. Neither of these cars are worth the money.
5. Both didn’t attend the meeting.
6. We all didn’t go.
7. Sharma plays cricket better than me.
8. Any one of these two boys are sent for training.
9. I haven’t got some pens.
10. If I were him. I wouldn’t have played the game.
11. Only they who have admit passes will be allowed in.
12. Drink water which tastes better.
13. Every woman raised their voice.
14. Sheila and Nancy like one another.
15. My neighbour that works in a bank has gone to Mumbai.
16. My three sisters like each other.
17. Divide the pieces of bread between him and me.
18. Shrika is senior than Srihan.
19. These all mangoes are ripe.

20. There are no less than ten thousand books in this library..
21. She is worst than her cousin.
22. This picture is the best of the two.
1. It is I.
2. She and I are twins.
3. Each of these girls has wide eyes.
4. Neither of these cars is worth the money.
5. Neither attend the meeting.
6. None of us went.
7. Sharma plays cricket better than I.
8. Either of these two boys is sent for training.
9. I haven’t got any pens.
10. If I were he, I wouldn’t have played the game.
11. Only those who have admit passes will be allowed in.
12. Drink water that tastes better.
13. Every woman raised her voice.
14. Sheila and Nancy like each other.
15. My neighbour who works in a bank has gone to Mumbai.
16. My three sisters like one other.
17. Divide the pieces of bread between he and I.
18. Shrika is senior to Srihan.
19. All these mangoes are ripe.
20. There are no fewer than ten thousand books in this library.
21. She is worse than her cousin.
22. This picture is the better of the two.

V. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors.

1. I need an advice from an expert.
2. He is more better than she.
3. This is the most best book I have read.
4. Virat Kohli is better than any cricketer in India.
5. This is strongest of any other metals.
6. She has been helping the poors.
7. The two first chapters are very interesting.
8. I am hopeless about his success.
9. She was not smart early.
10. This is a worth reading novel.
11. He hasn’t written much stories.
12. Open your book at six page.
13. This is a best book.
14. Ooty is cool than Thirupathi.
15. I paid him rupees hundred.
1. I need a piece of advice from an expert.
2. He is better than she.
3. This is the best book I have read.
4. Virat Kohli is better than any other cricketer in India.
5. This the strongest of all metals.
6. She has been helping the poor.
7. The first two chapters are very interesting.
8. I have no hope of his success.
9. She was not smart earlier.
10. This is a novel worth reading.
11. He hasn’t written many stories.
12. Open your book at page six.
13. This is a very good book.
14. Ooty is cooler than Thirupathi.
15. I paid him a hundred rupees.

VI. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors.

1. Sania Mirza is more popular than any tennis player.
2. Of the two this is the best article.
3. Our apartment is on third floor.
4. When Rome was burning, Nero is playing on the flute.
5. She enjoys to sing patriotic songs.
6. Why you were absent yesterday ?
7. She scarce blames others.
8. This is different to others.
9. She resembles to her mother.
10. I was prevented to do my work.
11. Would you mind to open the door ?
1. Sania Mirza is more popular than any other tennis player.
2. Of the two this is the better article.
3. Our apartment is on the third floor.
4. When Rome was burning, Nero was playing on the flute.
5. She enjoys singing patriotic songs.
6. Why were you absent yesterday ?
7. She scarcely blames others.
8. This is different from others.
9. She resembles her mother.
10. I was prevented from doing my work.
11. Would you mind opening the door ?

VII. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors.

1. My brother is working in tribal area.
2. I have an urgent business.
3. Kaleshwaram Project is built on Godavari.
4. Moon is very bright today.
5. I shall be visiting UK next month.
6. Himalayas form the northern boundary of India.
7. We should love the nature.
8. The Calcutta is a big city.
9. I have read Ramayana thrice.
10. David goes to the church every Sunday.
11. The gold is a precious metal.
12. He can play sitar well.
13. Lion is the king of beasts.
14. I had the lunch at noon.
15. I met my friend at college.
1. My brother is working in a tribal area.
2. I have (some) urgent business.
3. Kaleshwaram Project is built on the Godavari.
4. The Moon is very bright today.
5. I shall be visiting the UK next month.
6. The Himalayas form the northern boundary of India.
7. We should love nature.
8. Calcutta is a big city.
9. I have read the Ramayana thrice.
10. David goes to church every Sunday.
11. Gold is a precious metal.
12. He can play the sitar well.
13. The Lion is the king of beasts.
14. I had lunch at noon.
15. I met my friend at the college.

VIII. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors.

1. One of my friends have gone to the UAE.
2. Each of the girls were given the medals.
3. Everyone of the workers have stayed away from work.
4. Neither of the participants were able to win the match.
5. Age and experience bring wisdom to man.
6. Bread and butter are my favourite breakfast.
7. Where you are going ?
8. When vou will come here again ?
9. He asked me if I am going to Dubai.
10. I asked her if she is learning dance.
11. You are married, isn’t it ?
12. I like skating, do I ?
13. As I was ill so I could not go.
14. Both Hari as well as Krishna came to see me.
15. She said that she saw him last night.
16. The train left before I arrived.
18. I took my supper.
19. He knows to swim.

20. She cut her pencil.
21. I said to him to go.
22. He gave a speech.
24. My tooth is painting.
1. One of my friend has gone to the UAE.
2. Each of the girls was given the medals.
3. Everyone of the workers has stayed away from work.
4. Neither of the participants was able to win the match.
5. Age and experience brings wisdom to man.
6. Bread and butter is my favourite breakfast.
7. Where are you going ?
8. When will you come here again ?
9. He asked me if I was going to Dubai.
10. I asked her if she was learning dance.
11. You are married, aren’t you ?
12. I like skating, don’t I ?
13. As I was ill I could not go. (OR)
I was ill so I could not go.
14. Both Hari and Krishna came to see me. (OR)
Hari as well as Krishna came to see me.
15. She said that she had seen him last night.
16. The train had left before I arrived.
17. I went to Vijayawada yesterday.
19. He knows how to swim.
20. She sharpened her pencil.

21. I told him to go.
23. He gave a lecture.
24. My tooth is aching.
25. He scored a goal.

IX. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors.

1. I am too glad to see you.
2. This coffee is very hot to drink.
3. She is very much sorry.
4. You are leaving back your bag.
5. You can lift it by and by.
6. We scarcely see a lion.
7. He behaved cowardly.
8. Sarojini Naidu was called as the Nightingale of India.
9. She works very hardly.
10. He speaks English very good.
11. His version is somewhat true.
12. She speaks the truth always.
13. He comes to me often.
14. Most likely the shops will remain closed tomorrow.
15. The whole India is proud of his achievement.
1. I am very glad to see you.
2. This coffee is too hot to drink.
3. She is very sorry.
4. You are leaving behind your bag.
5. You can lift it little and little.
6. We rarely see a lion.
7. He behaved in a cowardly manner.
8. Sarojini Naidu was called the Nightingale of India.
9. She works very hard.
10. He speaks English very well.
11. His version is partly true.
12. She always speaks the truth.
13. He often comes to me.
14. Most probably the shops will remain closed tomorrow.
15. The whole of India is proud of his achievement.

X. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors.

1. I have ordered for three dishes.
2. He entered into the hall.
3. She has married with her cousin.
4. We are awaiting for the train.
5. He has been suffering with Corona.
6. She covered her head by a shawl.
7. They waited three hours.
8. I enquired her where her husband was.
9. He went for riding.
10. She is called with different names.
11. Sion the document with ink.
12. This is a comfortable house to live.
13. I filled water in the bucket.
14. I shall explain them this.
15. I travelled by my Principal’s car.
16. She was accused for stealing a gold ring.
17. He congratulated me for my success.
18. She got down the bus at Mancherial.
19. I don’t agree for your proposal.
20. This is the road to go.

21. Though he is fat, but he runs fast.
22. Scarcely had he gone than the phone rang.
23. No sooner had he gone when the officer came.
24. She is not only beautiful but intelligent.
25. I doubt that he will get through the exam.
26. He was handsome but everyone admired him.
27. You are not right nor wrong.
28. Wait while I come.
29. Unless you do not try, you will never succeed.
30. City life is tense and village life is relaxed.
1. I have ordered three dishes.
2. He entered the hall.
3. She has married her cousin.
4. We are awaiting the train./We are waiting for the train.
5. He has been suffering from Corona.
6. She covered her head with a shawl.
7. They waited for three hours.
8. I enquired of her where her husband was.
9. He went riding. OR He went for a ride.
10. She is called by different names.
11. Sign the document in ink.
12. This is a comfortable house to live in.
13. I filled the bucket with water.
14. I shall explain this to them.
15. I travelled in my Principal’s car.
16. She was accused of stealing a gold ring.
17. He congratulated me on my success.
18. She got down from the bus at Mancherial.
19. I don’t agree to your proposal.
20. This is the road to go by.

21. Though he is fat, he runs fast.
22. Scarcely had he gone when the phone rang.
23. No sooner had he gone than the officer came.
24. She is not only beautiful but also intelligent.
25. I doubt whether he will get through the exam.
26. He was handsome and everyone admired him.
27. You are neither right nor wrong.
28. Wait till I come.
29. Unless you try, you will never succeed.
30. City life is tense but village life is relaxed.

XI. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors.

1. A bouquet of yellow roses lend colour and fragrance.
2. Here is the keys.
3. Two miles are too far to walk.
4. If I was a bird, I would fly.
5. I wish it was Sunday.
6. All the staff are here.
7. The captain with his men were killed.
8. It is a two days programme.
9. Neither he came nor he wrote.
10. One of my friend is here.
11. He enioyed at the party.
12. He is in class tenth.
13. He gave his examination.
14. Columbus invented America.
15. Edison discovered electric bulb.
16. Never I have seen such a mess.
17. Should I cut this word ?
19. They insisted to pay.
20. Choose the best of the two options.

21. He went to foreign.
22. I asked a question to him.
23. We are doing Yoga every day.
24. All the roads are covered by snow.
25. He does not care for my words.
1. A bouquet of yellow roses lends colour and fragrance.
2. Here are the keys.
3. Two miles is too far to walk.
4. If I were a bird, I would fly.
5. I wish it were Sunday.
6. All these staff is here.
7. The captain with his men was killed.
8. It is a two day programme.
9. Neither did he come nor did he write.
10. One of my friends is here.
11. He enjoyed himself at the party.
12. He is in class ten.
13. He took his examination.
14. Columbus discovered America.
15. Edison invented electric bulb.
16. Never have I seen such a mess.
17. Should I erase this word ?
19. They insisted on paying.
20. Choose, the better of the two options.
22. I, asked him a question.
23. We do Yoga every day.
24. All the roads are covered with snow.
25. He pays no attention to what I say.

XII. Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the errors.

1. We elected Ram as President.
2. Did you went to school yesterday ?
3. She explained me the matter.
4. Are you really interested with English grammar ?
5. Bring me half glass water.
6. Every Sunday we go to the church.
7. He plays tennis, isn’t he ?
8. I returned back from London.
9. A bend in the road is not an end of the road.
10. I must change my cloths at once.
1. We elected Ram President.
2. Did you go to school yesterday ?
3. She explained the matter to me.
4. Are you really interested in English Grammar ?
5. Bring me half a glass water.
6. Every Sunday we go to church.
7. He plays tennis, doesn’t he ?
8. I returned from London.
9. A bend in the road is not the end of the road.
10. I must change my clothes at once.

## TS Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Study Material Chapter 7 Computerised Accounting System

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Study Material 7th Lesson Computerised Accounting System Textbook Questions and Answers.

## TS Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Study Material 7th Lesson Computerised Accounting System

Question 1.
What is Computerized Accounting?

1. Computerised Accounting is the maintaining of accounts through computers by use of special software.
2. computerized accounting is an accounting system formed by computer (Automation) and accounting rules and procedures.
Computerised accounting = Computer (Automation) + Accounting (Rules & Procedures)

Question 2.
What is the need for using Computerized Accounting?

1. Computerized accounting system provides various services to business concerns to meet all the purposes.
2. A computerized accounting system automates the accounting process by improving efficiency and cutting down the cost.
3. A computerized accounting system saves time, and effort, considerably reduces/ eliminates mathematical errors and allows for much more timely information.
4. Data within the computerized accounting system is accurate and upto date. Management can request online report in real-time and make decisions more reliable and timely.

Question 3.
How can you say that computerized accounting Is useful than Manual Accounting?
Computerized Accounting is more useful than manual accounting because it have unique features and several advantages over then manual accounting. They are:

1. Fast, Simple and Integreated.
2. Accuracy and error free.
3. Reliability, scalability and security.
4. Upto date information and helps to make Quick Decisions.

Question 4.
What is the Feature of Scalability?

1. Computerized Accounting has the flexibility to record transactions with the changing volume of business.
2. Computerized Accounting is designed to meet the current and future needs of the companies irrespective of their size and style.

Question 5.
Write about the following features of Computerized Accounting.
1. Total Visibility: Computerized Accounting provides enough time to plan to increase the customer base and enhance customer satisfaction. Companies will have greater visibility into the day-to-day business operations and access to very important information.

2. Supremacy: Computerized Accounting is capable of storing huge volumes of transactions with greater retrieval capacity and efficiency.

3. Accuracy and Spread: Computerized accounting has customized templates for users which allow fast and accurate data entry. Thus, after recording the transactions it generates the information and reports automatically and it is very simple to operate with a greater speed.

4. Simple and Integrated: Computerized Accounts helps all business by automating and integrating all business activities. Such activities may be sales, finance, purchase, inventory, and manufacturing etc. At also facilitates the arrangement of accurate and up-to-date business information in a readily usable form.

Question 6.
Write any two of the limitations of Computerized Accounting.
1. Cost of Training: The computerized accounting packages generally require specialized staff personnel. As a result, huge training costs are incurred to understand the use of hardware and software on a continuous basis because newer types of hardware and software are acquired to ensure efficient and effective use of computerized accounting systems.

2. Health Issues: The extensive use of computer systems may lead to the development of various health problems such as bad backs, eyestrain, muscular pains, etc. This affects adversely the working efficiency of accounting staff on one hand and increased medical expenditure on such staff.

Question 7.
Write any two of the differences between Manual and Computerized Accounting.

 Manual Accounting System Computerized Accounting System 1. Definition/Meaning: Manual Accounting is the system which physical register is maintained for keeping the records. In Computerized Accounting system where we use computer and different accounting software to maintained for digital records. 2. Measurements/Calculations: All Calculations of adding, subtracting and balancing are done manually. All the calculations are done by computer system.

Question 8.
What do you know about the following software?
1. Profit Book:

• This software offers complete inventory management and detailed tax reports that help in stabilized controlling of the business.
• Whether, the firm is a manufacturing unit, wholesaler, or retailer, Profit Books offers a steady platform to track management process and file tax returns.
• From managing income and expense statements to tracking the entire cash flow, Profit Books serve as the best accounting and inventory management solution.

2. Giddh:

• It is an all-inclusive, modern accounting software in India, which uses local database and delivers custom reports for the successful growth of the business. The software is not only for financial management, but also deals in inventory, stock management and handles bank accounts with high-level security.
• Giddh is GST compliance and delivers insight reports for better analysis of accounting stability. The software supports multi-currency features that enable to manage globalized departments form one place.

3. Vyapar:

• This accounting software is a free platform that allows maintaining invoice, getting inventory records, managing books of accounts, and tracking daily business activities while focusing on business growth rate.
• Since, most of the small sector business needs a digital upgrade, Vyapar acts as an effective solution.
• Vyapar is GST compliant and allows error-free tax returns while eliminating errors occurred with manual calculations.
• Vyapar takes-charge to control individual units of the business, creates customizable invoices, and automates payment reminders.

4. Logic:

• It is an online accounting software in India that satisfies the demand of having a strategic ERP system in the accounting and financial module.
• Logic is advanced computerized software that facilitates error-free financial management, budgeting and planning, assists forecasting, renders efficient performance analysis and integrates general ledger and accounting data.
• Business management can hold cross-communication with different departments and facilitate collaborations across business delegates using comprehensive data offered by Logic.

5. myBooks:

• This software is an excellent accounting solution for entrepreneurs, accountants, small IT and financial companies and free lancers. myBooks GST Accounting Software designed for all small business owner.
• my books designed from the small business owners’ perspective, kept easy user experience as the central objective in designing product. So, there will not be any need for formed training.

6. Zoho Books:

• This is popular online accounting software in India, which acts as an integrated platform for end-to-end financial solutions. Zoho Books is GST compliant, automates business workflow, and manages financial accounting and help in managing departments collectively from one single source.
• Right from maintaining sales orders and invoicing, Zoho Books mundane GST invoices, bookkeeping, huge, ledgers, and various accounting tasks.
• Zoho Books is feature-packed to manage cash receivables, payables, banking, inventory, timesheets, and business contacts and generate reports.

Question 1.
Explain the importance of Computerized Accounting.
A computerized accounting system is a system used by businesses for recording their financial information.
The importance of computerized accounting is given belows:
1) Time and Cost Savings: The use of computers makes in putting accounting information so simple. Business transactions are entered into the system and the system posts transactions accordingly. Thus, a computerized accounting system saves time and money,

2) Organization: A computerized accounting system help business to stay organized when information is entered into the system. It makes finding the information easy. Employees can see any financial information whenever it is needed.

3) Storage: In a Computerized accounting system data can be stored quickly after the information is entered into the system and the information is stored indefinitely. Companies perform backups on the system regularly to avoid loss of any information.

4) Distribution: Computerized accounting systems allows companies to distribute financial information easily. Financial statements are printed directly from the system and are distributed internally and externally to those needs the information.

5) Management Reports: Data within the computerized accounting system is accurate and up-to-date. Management can request online report in real-time and that makes management decisions more reliable and timely.

6) Regulatory Compliance: Reports are required on a regular basis from various government Agencies. A computer system can organize their data and reports to comply with these statutory requirements.

Question 2.
What are the features of Computerized Accounting?
1) Accuracy and Speed: Computerized accounting has customized templates for users which allow fast and accurate data entry. Thus, after recording the transactions it generates the information and reports automatically and it is very simple to operate with a greater speed.

2) Quick Decision Making: This system generates real-time, comprehensive Management Information System (MIS) reports and ensures access to complete and critical information, instantly.

3) Scalability: It has the flexibility to record transactions with the changing volume of business. It is designed to meet the current and future needs of the companies irrespective of their size and style.

4) Security: Secured data and information can be kept confidential as compared to the „ . traditional accounting system.

5) Simple and Integrated: Computerized Accounting helps all businesses by automating and integrating all the business activities. Such activities may be sales, finance, purchase, inventory and manufacturing etc. it also facilitates the arrangement of accurate and up-to-date business information in a readily usable form.

6) Supremacy: Computerized Accounting is capable of storing huge volumes of transactions with greater retrieval capacity and efficiency.

Question 3.
Explain the five Advantages of Computerized Accounting.
1) Accuracy: The possibility of error is eliminated in a computerized accounting system, because the primary accounting data is entered once for all the subsequent usage and processes in preparing the accounting reports.

2) Automation: Most of computerized accounting systems have standardized, user-defined formats of accounting reports that are generated automatically. The accounting reports such as Cash book, Trial balance, and Statement of accounts are obtained just by click of a mouse in a computerized accounting environment.

3) Efficiency: The computer-based accounting systems ensure better use of resources and time. This brings about efficiency in generating decisions, useful information and reports.

4) Management Information System Reports: The computerized accounting system facilitates the real-time production of management information reports, which will help management to monitor and control the business effectively.

Question 4.
Write any five limitations of Computerized Accounting.
1) Cost of Training: The computerized accounting packages generally require specialized staff personnel. As a result, huge training costs are incurred to understand the use of hardware and software on a continuous basis because newer types of hardware and software are acquired to ensure efficient and effective use of computerized accounting systems.

2) Health Issues: The extensive use of computer systems may lead to development of various health problems such as bad backs, eyestrain, muscular pains, etc. This affects adversely the working efficiency of accounting staff on one hand and increased medical expenditure on such staff.

3) Reduction of Manpower: The introduction of computers in accounting work reduces the number of employees in an organization. Thus, it leads to greater amount of unemployment.

4) Security Issues: Computer-related crimes are difficult to detect. The alteration of records in a manual accounting system is easily detected. Fraud and embezzlement are usually committed on a computerized accounting system by alteration of data or programs. Hacking of passwords or user rights may change the accounting records.

5) Staff Resistance: Whenever the accounting system is computerized, there is a Significant degree of resistance from the existing accounting staff, partly because of the fear that they shall be made redundant and largely, because of the perception that they shall be less important to the organization.

6) System Failure: The danger of the system crashing due to hardware failures and the subsequent loss of work is a serious limitation of the computerized accounting system. Software damage and failure may occur due to attacks by viruses. No full proof solutions are available as of now to tackle the menace of attacks on software by viruses.

7) Unanticipated Errors: Since, the computers lack capability to judge, they cannot detect unanticipated errors as human beings commit.

Question 5.
Explain the difference between Manual and a Computerized Accounting system.

 Basis Manual Accounting System Computerized Accounting System Definition Manual Accounting is the system in which physical register of Journal and Ledger is maintained for keeping the records of each transaction. In this system of accounting, computer and different accounting software are maintained for digital record of each transaction. Identification Based on application of Accounting Principles. Based on application of Accounting Principles software is designed. Measurement All calculations of adding, subtracting and balancing are done manually. All the calculations are done by computer system. Recording Recording of financial transac­tions is through Journal (book of original entry). Data content of these transactions is stored in well-designed database. Adjustments Adjustment Entries are to be made in Journal and Ledger. We create Ledgers for adjustment record voucher entry. Rectification of Errors Rectification of Errors requires recording of adjustment entries. Easy to rectify by deleting the wrong entry and record correct entry or correcting the figure. Backup Incase of fire or other miship, it is not possible to backup and save the paper records, unless many copies of all pages are made and stored in different places. All transactions can be saved and backed up in Computerized Accounting. Speed and Accuracy User can flip to the pages to the needed, and even spread the books out of a table if needed. Quicker as far as entering the transactions is concerned.

Question 6.
What are the different factors influencing the selection of Prepackaged Accounting Software?
1) Cost of installation: The choice of the software obviously requires consideration of organization’s ability to afford the hardware and software. A simple guideline to take such a decision is the cost-benefit analysis of the available options and the financing opportunities available to the firm. Sometimes, certain software which appears cheap to buy, involve heavy maintenance and alternation costs.

2) Data Facility:The transfer of database to other systems or other software is sometimes expected from the accounting software. Organizations may need to transfer information directly from the ledger into spreadsheet software such as Lotus or Excel for more flexible reporting. The software should allow the hygienic, untouched data transfer.

3) Ease of Adaptation: The software consider must be capable of attracting users and, if it requires simple training, should be able to motivate its potential users.

4) An important consideration before sourcing accounting software is flexibility, viz., data entry and the availability and design of various reports expected from it. The user should be able to run the software on a variety of platforms and machines.

5) MIS Reports: The MIS reports and the degree to which they are used in the organization also determine the acquisition of software. For example, software that requires simply producing the final accounts or cashflow or ratio analysis may be ready-to-use software. However, the software, which is expected to produce cost records, needs to be customized as per user requirements.

6) Security Features: Another consideration before buying accounting software is the security features, which prevent unauthorized personnel from accessing and/or manipulating data in the accounting system.

7) Size of Organisation: The size of the organization and the volume of business transactions do affect the software choices. Small organizations, e.g., in non-profit organizations, where the number of accounting transactions are not so large, may opt for simple, single-user operated software. While, a large organization may require sophisticated software to meet the multiuser requirements, geographically scattered and connected through complex networks.

8) Vendors Reputation: Another important consideration is the reputation and capability of the vendor. This depends upon how long has been the vendor is in business of software development, whether there are other users of the software.

Question 7.
Explain the types of Accounting Packages.
Every Computerized Accounting System is implemented to perform the accounting activity. Accounting Software is are an integral part of the computerized accounting system such as recording and storing of accounting data and generate reports as per the requirements of the user. As per this, accounting software is classified into three categories. They are:

1. This software is suited for organizations running small or conventional business where the frequency or volume of accounting transactions is very low.
2. The cost of installation is low and number of users is limited. It is relatively easier to learn and accountant adaptability is very high.
3. This implies that level of secrecy is relatively low and the software is prone to data frauds. The training needs are simple and sometimes the supplier of software offers the training on the software free.

2) Customized Software:

1. This may be customized to meet the special requirement of the business orginizations. Customized software is suited for medium businesses and can be linked to the other information systems.
2. The cost of installation and maintenances is relatively high because the high cost is to be paid to the vendor for customization.
3. Secrecy of data and software can be better maintained in this software.

3) Tailored Software:

1. The accounting software is generally tailored in large business organizations such as multi-national companies with multi-users and geographically scattered locations.
2. This software requires specialized training to the users.
3. The secrecy and authenticity checks are robust in such type of software and they offer high flexibility in terms of number of users.

## TS Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Study Material Chapter 6 Retirement and Death of a Partner

Telangana TSBIE TS Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Study Material 6th Lesson Retirement and Death of a Partner Textbook Questions and Answers.

## TS Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Study Material 6th Lesson Retirement and Death of a Partner

Question 1.
State how a partner may retire from partnership firm.
1. An existing partner may retire from a firm due to many factors such as old age, better business prospects elsewhere, differences with other partners, health problems etc.

2. According to Section 32(i) of the partnership Act 1932, a partner may retire
a) With the consent of all other partners,
b) In accordance with an express agreement with the partners.
c) By circulating a written notice among other partners, incase of partnership will.

Question 2.
What is Ratio of Gaining?

1. The ratio at which the share of retiring partner is taken by the continuing partners is called Ratio of Gaining.
2. Ratio of Gaining = New Profit sharing Ratio – Old profit sharing ratio

Question 3.
Why ratio of gaining is to be ascertained?

1. Calculation of ratio of gaining is very important because, the share of goodwill to be paid to the retiring partner, shall be contributed by the remaining partners in their respective share of gaining.
2. The more the gain, the more the goodwill, one has to contribute. The less the gain, the less the goodwill one has to contribute.

Question 4.
X, Y and Z are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3: 2: 2. Calculate new profit sharing of;
a) X and Y if Z retires from the business.
b) Y and Z if X retires from the business.
c) X and Z if Y retires from the business.
XYZ profit & loss ratio = 3:2:2

Question 5.
A, B and C are partners sharing profits and losses equally. Mr. C retires from the business A and B decided to continue the business and sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3: 2 respectively. Calculate the ratio of gaining of A and B.
AB & C profit sharing ratio = 1:1:1
A & B new profit sharing ratio = 3:2
Ratio of Gaining = New Ratio – Old ratio.

Question 6.
P, Q and R are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 4: 3: 2 respectively. R retires from the business and his share is purchased by P and Q in the ratio of 2:1. Calculate New Profit sharing ratio of P and Q.
P, Q, R old profit sharing ratio = 4:3:2 i.e., 4/9: 3/9: 2/9
R’s share of profit 2/9 being purchased by

New profit sharing ratio of P = P’s old share + proportion of R’s share purchased

New profit sharing ratio of Q = Q’s old share + proportion of R’s share purchased

The new profit sharing ratio of P & Q is 16/27: 11/27 (or) 16: 11.

Question 7.
Ram, Rahim and Akbar are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3: 2: 3 respectively. Akbar retires from the business and Rahim purchased the share of Akbar. Calculate new profit sharing ratio of Ram and Rahim.
Ram, Rahim and Akbar profit sharing ratio = 3:2:1 (or) 3/6: 2/6: 1/6
Rahim purchased Akbar shares then

Ram: Rahim New Profit sharing Ratio = 3/6: 3/6 = 3: 3 = 1: 1.

Question 8.
X, Y and Z are partners with profit sharing ratio of 5: 4: 3 respectively. Z retires from the business. X and Y decided to share future profits in the ratio of 3: 2. Calculate the ratio of gaining of X and Y.
X, Y and Z profit sharing ratio = 5:4:3
X and Y new (future) profit ratio = 3:2
Gaining ratio = New ratio – Old ratio.

Question 9.
A, B and C are partners sharing profits and losses at the ratio of 5: 4: 3 respectively. C retires from business. A and B decided to continue the business and sharing future profits in the ratio of 4: 3. Calculate the ratio of gaining of A and B.
A, B and C profit sharing ratio = 5:4:3
A and B new (future) profit ratio = 4:3
Gaining ratio = New ratio – Old ratio.

Question 10.
Sitha, Geetha and Savitha are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 4: 3: 2 respectively. Savitha retired from the business. The value of goodwill is estimated at Rs. 72,000. There is no goodwill balance in the books. Create/Raise goodwill account in the books.
Sitha, Geetha and Savitha profit sharing ratio = 4:3:2
When the Goodwill raised worth Rs. 72,000.
Journal entry when goodwill is raised:

Question 11.
Vani, Rani, Radha are partners sharing profits and losses equally. Radha retires from the business. Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 40,000. Goodwill account showing a balance of Rs. 10,000 in the books. The pass journal entry to raise goodwill in the books.
[Hint: Goodwill to be created is Rs. 30,000 only as goodwill existing in the books is Rs. 10,000].
Journal entries when goodwill is raised:

Question 12.
Ramesh, Suresh and Rajesh are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2:1 respectively. Suresh retires from the business. Ramesh and Rajesh decided to continue the business and share future profits in the ratio of 3: 2, goodwill of the firm valued at Rs. 60,000. Give necessary journal entries to create and writeoff goodwill.
Journal Entries when goodwill is raised and written-off

Question 13.
X, Y and Z are partners sharing profits and losses equally. Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 45,000. X retires from the business. Y and Z divided to continue the business by sharing future profits and losses in the ratio of 3: 2 respectively. Give necessary journal entries without raising goodwill account.
X, Y, Z’s old profit sharing ratio =1:1:1
Y and Z new profit sharing ratio = 3:2
Ratio of gaining = New ratio – Old ratio

Goodwill of the firm is Rs. 45,000
The share of goodwill payable to ‘X’ is 45,000 x 1/3 = 15,000 Rs. 15,000 payable to ‘X’ will be contributed by Y and Z in their ratio of gaining 4:1.

Journal Entries without raising Goodwill account

Question 14.
What is joint Life policy?
On death of a partner, firm has to pay huge amount of cash to the executors of the deceased partner. This may adversely affect the resources of the firm. To over come this problem, firm may take a insurance policy as the live of the partners to guarclthe risk. This insurance policy is known as Joint Life Policy.

In the event of death of any partner, the insurance company pays the sum assured to the firm. In this way the firm add comes the problem of setting the amount due to the decreased partner.

Question 15.
How do you ascertain share of profit/loss payable to deceased partner?

1. Share of profit/loss payable to deceased partner is ascertain till the date of his/her death during the current financial year.
2. Partnership deed contains a provisions for ascertainment of profit in the event of death of partner.
3. Accordingly, the share of profit/loss of deceased partner will be ascertained and paid to legal representatives of deceased partner along with another amount due.

Question 16.
What are the amounts payable to deceased partner?
The amount payable to deceased partner includes:

1. Capital contributed.
2. Share in undistributed profits/losses.
3. Share in accumulated reserves.
4. Share in the goodwill of the firm.
5. Share in profit/loss on revaluation of Assets and Liabilities.
6. Share in profit/loss of the business till the date of death.

Question 17.
State the methods of accounting for payment of share of profit to deceased partner.
After ascertaining the profit, there are two ways of recording the profit ascertained till the date of death.

1. Distribute the profit among all the partners in their respective old profit-sharing ratio.

2. Record the share of profit payable to decreased partner only in such a case the journal entry is

3. Sometimes, the continuing partners, instead of debiting to profit and loss a/c. They may contribute the share of profit of decreased partner by debiting to their capital accounts in their gaining ratio.
The entry is —>

Textual Problems

When Goodwill is created / Raised:

Question 1.
X, Y and Z are partners sharing profits and losses equally. Their balance sheet as on 31 March 2020 was as under;

On the above date, Z retires from the business on the following conditions;
a) Stock and Machinery to be depreciated by 10%.
b) Provided for bad debts @ 5% on debtors.
c) Land revalued at Rs. 35,000.
d) Goodwill of the firm valued at Rs. 60,000.
Give necessary journal entries, ledger accounts and opening balance sheet of X and Y.
Journal entries in the books of X, Y, Z partnership firm.

X and Y Balance Sheet as on 31 – 3 – 2020

Question 2.
X and Y are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3: 2. Their balance sheet as on 31 March, 2020 was as follows;

X retires from the business on the following terms:
a) Goodwill is valued at Rs. 20,000.
b) Depreciate stock and machinery by 10%.
c) Provide for bad debts at 6%.
d) Buildings are valued at Rs. 35,000.
Give Journal entries, necessary Ledger accounts and the Balance sheet.
Journal entries in the books of X, Y, Z partnership firm.

Balance Sheet of Y as on 31 – 3 – 2015

Question 3.
S, P and G were partners sharing profits and loss in the ratio of 4: 3: 3. Their balance sheet as on 31st March, 2020 was as under;

G Retires from the business on the following terms:
a) Buildings valued at Rs. 1,30,000.
b) Depreciate Furniture and Machinery by 10%.
c) Provide for bad debts at Rs. 1,600.
d) Creditors Rs. 6,000 need not be paid.
e) Goodwill valued at Rs. 27,000.
f) G will be paid Rs. 17,700 immediately and the balance is transferred to his loan account. Give journal entries, ledger accounts and balance sheet of S and R
Journal entries in the books of S, P & G Partnership firm.

Balance Sheet of ‘S’ and P’ as on 31.3.2020

Question 4.
Ajay, Vijay and Vinay were partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 5:3:2. Their balance sheet as on 31 March, 2020 was as under.

Vinay retires on the above date on the following conditions:
a) Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 50,000.
b) Appreciate buildings by 20%.
c) Create a provision for bad debts at Rs. 1,000.
d) Depreciate plant and machinery by 10%.
e) Ajay and Vijay bring in cash Rs. 25,500 and Rs. 19,300 towards additional capital to pay the amount due to retiring partner Vinay.
Give journal entries and necessary ledger accounts and balance sheet of a new firm.
Journal entries in the books of Ajay, Vijay and Vinay partnership firm.

Ajay, Vijay Balance Sheet as on 31-3-2020

Question 5.
Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswathi are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2:1 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31st March 2019 was under.

Saraswathi retired from the business on the following conditions:
a) Depreciate machinery by 10% and furniture by 15%.
b) Stock to be appreciated by 20%.
c) Buildings are to be appreciated by 10%.
d) Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 36,000.
Write up necessary Journal entries, ledger accounts and balance sheet of new firm.
Journal entries in the books of Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswathi partnership firm.

Ganga and Yamuna balance sheet as on 31-3-2019

Question 6.
Kamala, Amala and Vimala were partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 5: 3: 2 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31st March, 2020 was given below;

On the above date Vimala retired from the business on the following terms:
a) Appreciate Machinery by 20%.
b) Provide for Bad Debts @ 5% on debtors.
c) Stock to be depreciated by Rs. 6,000.
d) Goodwill is valued at Rs. 20,000.
e) Amount payable to Vimala transferred to her loan a/c.
Prepare necessary ledger accounts and balance sheet of Kamala and Amala.
Ledger a/c’s in the books of Kamala, Amala and Vimala
Partnership firm as on 31-3-2020

Question 7.
K, S and N are sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 4: 3: 2 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31 March 2020 was as under;

On 31st March 2020, N retires from the business on the following conditions:
a) Buildings are revalued at Rs. 60,000.
b) Provide for bad debts Rs. 3,000.
c) Stock to be depreciated by Rs. 2,500.
d) Goodwill is valued at Rs. 27,000.
The amount payable to N transferred to N’s Loan account by carrying 10% Interest per annum.
Prepare necessary ledger accounts and balance sheet of a new firm.

K, S Balance Sheet as on 31 – 3 – 2020

Question 8.
X, Y and Z are partners in a firm sharing profits and losses equally. Their balance sheet as on 31 March, 2020 was as under;

On the above date Mr. Z decided to retire from the business on the following terms:
a) The assets are to be revalued as under;
Stock Rs. 15,000; Furniture Rs. 18,000; Machinery Rs. 25,000.
b) Goodwill of the firm valued at Rs. 30,000.
Give necessary ledger accounts and balance sheet of X and Y.

When Goodwill is created and written off:

Question 9.
Dravid, Ganguly and Sachin are partners sharing profits and losses equally. Their balance sheet as on 31st March, 2020 was as under:

On the above date Dravid decided to retire from the business on the following terms.
a) Fixed assets are revalued at Rs. 80,000.
b) Create a provision for bad debts @ 6% on debtors.
c) Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 45,000 and it is decided to writen off immediately.
d) Ganguly and Sachin will share future profits in the ratio of 3: 2 respectively.
Give necessary journal entries and ledger accounts and balance sheet of new firm.
Journal entries in the books of Dravid, Ganguly and Sachin partnership firm.

Ganguly and Sachin Balance sheet as on 31-3-2020

Question 10.
P, Q and R are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 2: 1: 1 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31st March 2020 is as follows;

On the above date Mr. R decides to retire from the business on the following terms;
a) Goodwill of the firm is to be valued at Rs. 20,000 and written off completely after the retirement of R.
b) Stock to be depreciated by 5% and Furniture by 10%.
c) Buildings valued at Rs. 43,000.
d) The amount payable to R is to be transferred to his loan a/c by carrying 6% interest per annum.
e) P and Q share the future profits in the ratio of 3: 2 respectively.
Give necessary ledger accounts and balance sheet of new firm.

PQ Balance Sheet as on 31-3-2020

Question 11.
Raju, Rani and Prince are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of their capitals. Their balance sheet as on 31st March, 2020 was as under.

On the above date Rani retired from the business and Raju, Prince decided to continue the business sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3: 2 respectively. The following are agreed;
a) Value of buildings to be appreciated by Rs. 10,000.
b) Depreciate machinery by Rs. 5,000 and stock by Rs. 2,000.
c) Goodwill of the firm valued at Rs. 10,000 and decided to write off immediately.
d) The amount due to Rani is to be transferred to her loan a/c by carrying 10% interest per annum.
Give necessary ledger accounts and balance sheet.
Raju, Rani, Prince profit sharing ratio 50,000: 30,000: 20,000 5:3:2

Raju and Prince Balance Sheet as on 31-3-2020

Question 12.
Harish, Sathish and Mahesh are partners sharing profits and losses equally. Their balance sheet as on 31 March 2020 was as under;

On the above date Mahesh retired from the business on the following terms;
a) Land is valued at Rs. 38,000.
b) Depreciate machinery by Rs. 5,000 and Stock by Rs. 2,000.
c) Goodwill of the firm valued at Rs. 24,000 and decided to give the Mahesh’s share of goodwill without raising goodwill in the books.
d) Harish and Sathish share future profits in the ratio of 2: 3 respectively.
Give necessary journal entries and ledger accounts and balance sheet.
Hint: Goodwill payable to retiring partner is Rs. 8,000, contributed in the ratio of gaining i.e., 1:4 between Harish and Sathish.
Journal entries in the books of Harish, Sathish and Mahesh partnership firm as on 31-3 2020.

Working Notes:
Calculation of Gaining Ratio = (New Ratio – Old Ratio)
Old ratio 1:1:1
Harish, Satish new Raju 2:3.

Gaining ratio =1:4.

Harish and Sathish Balance Sheet as on 31-3-2020

Question 13.
Sit Chandra, Bhaskar; Rah a are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio oRs. 3:2: 1 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31st March, 2013 IMS as under ;

On the above date Raghu retired from the business on the following’ conditions:
a) Fixed assets are revalued at Rs. 42,000.
b) Depreciate stock by Rs. 1,700.
c) Provide for Bad Debts Rs. 700.
d) Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 18,000. The share of goodwill payable to Raghu will be contributed by continuing partners without raising goodwill account.
e) Ratio of gaining of Chandra and Bhaskar is 1:1 respectively.
Show necessary ledger accounts and balance sheet of Chandra and Bhaskar.
[Hint: Raghu’s share of goodwill Rs. 3,000 contributed by Chandra and Bhaskar in their ratio of gaining i.e., 1: 1 i.e., Rs. 1,500 each]

Chandra and Bhaskar Balance sheet as on 31-3-2015

Working Note:
Value of Goodwill of the firm is Rs. 18,000
Raghu’s Share in Goodwill = 18,000 x 1/6 = 3,000
Raghu’s share of goodwill Rs. 3,000 is contributed by Chandra and Bhaskar in ratio of gaining i.e., 1: 1 i.e., Rs. 1,500 each.

Question 14.
Star, Sun and Moon are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 5: 3: 2 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31st March 2020 was as under;

Moon retired from the business on the above date with the following terms;
a) Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 20,000 and it is decided not to raise goodwill account in the books.
b) Buildings revalued at Rs. 42,000.
c) Provide for bad debts @ 5% on debtors.
d) Trade creditors Rs. 1,000 need not be paid.
e) Star and Sun share future profits equally.
f) Amount due to Moon will be transferred to his loan account with 12% interest per annum.
Prepare necessary ledger accounts and Balance sheet of new firm.
[Hint: On retirement of Moon, Sun alone gaining star is not gaining anything. So, the share of goodwill of Moon Rs. 4,000 given by Sun only.

Working Mole:
Calculation of Gaining ratio of star & sun (New ratio – old ratio)
Old Ratio = 5:3:2, New 1: 1

Gaining ratio = 0:2 (Means star not gaining anything) So, total share of moon is contributed by sun.

Star and Sun Balance Sheet as an 31-3-2015

Textual Examples

Question 1.
X, Y and Z are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2:1 respectively the find out the new profit shaiiag ratio in the case of;
a) X retires from the business.
b) Y retires from the business.
c) Z retires from the business.
The old profit sharing ratio of X, Y and Z is 3:2:1 respectively.
a) If X retires from the business, Y and Z share the profits in the ratio of 2:1 i.e., 2/3 and 1/3
b) If Y retires from business X and Z share the profits in the ratio of 3:1 respectively i.e., 3/4 and 1/4.
c) If Z retires from the business, X and Y share the profits in the ratio of 3: 2 respectively, i.e., 3/5 and 2/5 respectively.

Question 2.
A, B and C are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 2:1:1 respectively. Mr. C retires from the business. Calculate new profit sharing ratio of A and B.
Elimination Method:
The old profit sharing ratio of A, B and C is 2:1:1.
Eliminate C’s share of profit from old profit sharing ratio.
The new profit sharing ratio of continuing partners A and B is 2:1 respectively i.e., 2/3: 1/3.
Alternative Method:
Alternatively, the new profit-sharing ratio may be calculated as follows:
Profit sharing ratio of A, B and C is 2:1:1 respectively = 2/4: 1/4: 1/4.
Retiring partner C’s share is 1/4.
Retiring partner’s share is acquired in the old ratio by A and B i.e., 2:1. This is also called gaining ratio.
Gaining ratio of A and B is 2:1 (or) 2/3: 1/3.
Gaining ratio = Retiring partners share x Partners gaining ratio.

New profit sharing ratio = Old share + Share gained

Question 3.
P, Q and R partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 5:4:3 respectively. R Retires from the business and his share of profit purchased by P and Q in the ratio of 2:1 respectively. Calculate the new profit sharing ratio of P and Q,
Old profit sharing ratio of P, Q and R is 5:4:3 = 5/12: 4/12: 3/12
R’s share of profit 3/12 being purchased by P and Q in the ratio of 2:1 = 2/3 : 1/3 respectively.

New profit sharing ratio of P = P’s old share + proportion of R’s share purchased

New profit sharing ratio Q = Q’s old share + proportion of R’s share purchased

The new profit-sharing ratio of P and Q is 7:5 respectively i.e., 7/12 and 5/12.

Question 4.
X, Y and Z are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 2:4:3 respectively. Mr. X retires from the business. Y and Z share future profits in the ratio of 3:2. respectively. Calculate the ratio of gaining.
Ratio of gaining = New profit sharing ratio – Old profit sharing ratio
Old ratio of X, Y and Z is 2:4:3.
New ratio of Y and Z is 3:2.

Question 5.
A, B and C are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 5:3:2 respectively. C retires from the business. Calculate ratio of gaining and new profit Sharing ratio of A and B.
In this problem, new profit sharing ratio is not given. Hence, after eliminating C’s share of profit from old ratio, whatever that is left will be the new profit sharing ratio of A and B. Old ratio, of A, B and C is 5:3:2
New ratio of A and B is 5:3 i.e., 5/8 and 3/8 (C’s share eliminated).
In the absence of new ratio given in the problem, the continuing partners gain in the same ratio in which, they were sharing earlier. Even, it is calculated it will be the same.
Ratio of gaining = New ratio – Old ratio

The ratio of gain between A and B is 5:3 respectively.
In other words, the continuing partners are gaining in the same ratio in which they are sharing profits earlier after eliminating C’s share.

Question 6.
X, Y and Z are partners sharing profits or losses in the ratio of 4:2:2. Mr. Z retires from the business. X and Y will gain in the ratio of 7:3 respectively. Calculate new profit sharing ratio of X and Y.

New profit sharing ratio of X and Y is 27/40 and 13/40 = 27 : 13 respectively.

Question 7.
X, Y and Z are partners sharing profits and losses in the the ratio of 3:2:1. Goodwill Of the firm is valued at Rs. 60,000. Mr. Z retires from the business, X & Y decided to continue the business shearing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2 respectively
Give journal entries and prepare the goodwill account when;
a) Goodwill is raised in the books for full value.
b) Goodwill is raised and writtenoff in the books.
a) Journal entries when goodwill is raised

Note: In this case, goodwill appear at Rs. 60,000 on the assets side of the balance sheet of new firm.
b) Journal Entries when goodwill is raised and writtenoff.

Note: In this case, the goodwill account is closed, so it will not appear in balance sheet of new firm in which X and Y are partners.

Question 8.
A, B and C are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 2:1:1 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31-3-2020 was as under;

On the above date Mr. C retired from the business. The following are agreed among partners;
a) Machinery revalued at Rs. 23,000 and Buildings at Rs. 40,000.
b) Depreciate furniture by 10%.
c) Outstanding expenses Rs. 1,000 need not be paid.
d) Goodwill of the firm valued at Rs. 20,000.
e) A should bring Rs. 20,000 and B Rs. 10,000 as additional capital to pay the amount due to retiring partner, Mr. C.
Give journal entries and necessary ledger accounts and new balance sheet.
Journal Entries

Ledger Accounts:

Balance Sheet of A and B as on 31-03-2020

Question 9.
Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswathi are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2:2 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31 March 2020 was under.

On the above date Saraswathi retired from the business. Ganga and Yamuna decided to continue the business. The following were agreed among partners;
a) Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 56,000.
b) Stock and Motor car to be depreciated by 10%.
c) Provide for bad debts Rs. 1,000.
d) Buildings appreciated byl5%.
e) Trade creditors reduced by Rs. 300.
It is decided to pay Rs. 18,800 to Saraswathi and transfer the balance in her capital account to her loan account.
Give necessary Journal entries and ledger accounts and opening balance sheet of Ganga and Yamuna.
Journal entries

Note: Goodwill created in the books. Hence, it appears on assets side of the balance sheet.

Question 10.
Ram, Rahim and Robert are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:1:2 respectively. The following is the balance sheet as on 31 March 2020.

Mr. Rahim Retires on the above date on the following conditions;
a) Goodwill of the firm be valued at Rs. 45,000.
b) Provision for bad debts not necessary.
c) An outstanding liability in respect of workmen compensation Rs. 2,500 to be brought into books.
d) Patents have no value.
e) Stock to be appreciated by Rs. 2,490.
f) Buildings be appreciated by 10%.
Give necessary Journal entries and ledger accounts and balance sheet of Ram and Robert. Partners capital accounts are maintained under fixed capital method.
Journal Entries

Ledger Accounts:

Note: Capital Accounts are maintained under fixed capital method. Current a/c of retiring partner Rahim transferred to his capital a/c and then to his loan A/c.

When Goodwill is created and written off:

Question 11.
X, Y and Z are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2:1 respectively. Their balance sheet as on 31 March 2015 was as follows;

On the above date Mr. Y retires from the business. X and Z decided to continue the business with the following terms;
a) Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 18,000.
b) Provision for bad debts required is Rs. 1,500.
c) Stock to be depreciated by Rs. 6,000.
d) Land to be appreciated by Rs. 5,000.
e) It is decided to write off goodwill in the new firm.
f) New profit-sharing ratio of X and Z will be 3:2.
Give journal entries and necessary ledger accounts and opening balance sheet of X and Z.
Journal Entries

Ledger Accounts:

Balance Sheet of X and Z as on 31-03-2020

Note: Goodwill and shared in old profit sharing ratio and written – off in new profit sharing ratio.

Question 12.
Ramesh, Ganesh and Suresh are partners sharing profits and losses equally. Their balance sheet as on 31 March 2020 stood as follows;

a) Buildings to be appreciated to Rs. 45,000.
b) Furniture revalued at Rs. 23,000.
c) Goodwill of the firm valued at Rs. 40,000.
d) New profit sharing ratio of Ganesh and Suresh will be 3:2 respectively and decided to write off goodwill.
Give journal entries and necessary ledger accounts and opening balance sheet.
Journal Entries

Ledger Accounts:

Note:

1. Goodwill created to the extent of Rs. 30,000 because already Rs. 10,000 value of goodwill appears in the books. Now the goodwill of the firm will be 40,000 i.e., 10,000 + 30,000 created.
2. P & L a/c Dr. balance (loss), transferred to old partners capital a/cs.
3. The amount payable to Ramesh, the retiring partner, after all the adjustments are transferred to his loan account.

Question 13.
Amar, Akbar, and Anthony are partners sharing profits and losses equally. Their balance sheet as on 31s1 March 2020, was as follows;

On the above date Mr. Akbar retired from the business. The following adjustments are agreed.
a) Land & Buildings appreciated by Rs. 20,000.
b) Stock and Machinery are to be depreciated by 10%.
c) Provide for Bad debts Rs. 2,000.
d) Goodwill of the firm is valued at Rs. 60,000 and it is decided to pay the share of Goodwill of retiring partner by continuing partners without raising goodwill account in the books.
e) Rs. 70,000 to be sharing ratio of Amar and Anthony is 3 : 2 respectively.
f) New profit sharing ratio of Amar and Anthony is 3:2 respectively.
Give journal entries and necessary ledger accounts and opening balance sheet of Amar and Anthony.
Journal Entries

Ledger Accounts:

Notes:
1) Calculation of Gaining ratio:

2) The share of goodwill payable to retiring partner, Ameer is (60,000 x 1/3 ) = Rs. 20,000. It
is given by continuing partners in their respective share of gaining. Amar gives (20,000 x 1/5) = 16,000 and Anthony gives (20,000 x 1/5) = Rs. 4,000 from their capital accounts and the same (i.e., 20,000) credited to retiring partner’s capital account, without raising goodwill a/c in the books.

## TS Inter 1st Year Maths 1A Product of Vectors Important Questions Long Answer Type

Students must practice these Maths 1A Important Questions TS Inter 1st Year Maths 1A Product of Vectors Important Questions Long Answer Type to help strengthen their preparations for exams.

## TS Inter 1st Year Maths 1A Product of Vectors Important Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
By the vector method, prove that altitudes of a triangle are concurrent.
Let A, B, C be the vertices of a triangle.
Let $$\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = a̅, $$\overline{\mathrm{OB}}$$ = b̅, $$\overline{\mathrm{OC}}$$ = c̅
Let the altitudes through A, B meet at H and $$\overline{\mathrm{OH}}$$ = r̅ (say)

Now $$\overline{\mathrm{AH}} \perp \overline{\mathrm{BC}} \Rightarrow \overline{\mathrm{AH}} \cdot \overline{\mathrm{BC}}=0 \Rightarrow(\overline{\mathrm{OH}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}}) \cdot(\overline{\mathrm{OC}}-\overline{\mathrm{OB}})$$ = 0
⇒ (r̅ – a̅). (c̅ – b̅) = 0
⇒ r̅ . (c̅ – b̅) – a̅. (c̅ – b̅) = 0 ……………(1)

Also $$\overline{\mathrm{BH}} \perp \overline{\mathrm{AC}} \Rightarrow \overline{\mathrm{BH}} \cdot \overline{\mathrm{AC}}=0 \Rightarrow(\overline{\mathrm{OH}}-\overline{\mathrm{OB}}) \cdot(\overline{\mathrm{OC}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}})$$ = 0
⇒ (r̅ – b̅). (c̅ – a̅) = 0
⇒ r̅ .(c – a̅) – b̅.(c̅ – a̅) = 0 ………….(2)

(1) – (2) ⇒ r̅ . (c̅ – b̅) – a̅. (c̅ – b̅) – r . (c̅ – a̅) + b̅. (c̅ – a̅) = 0

⇒ r̅ . (a̅ – b̅) – c̅ (a̅ – b̅) = 0
⇒ (r̅ – c̅) . (a̅ – b̅) = 0
⇒ $$(\overline{\mathrm{OH}}-\overline{\mathrm{OC}}) \cdot(\overline{\mathrm{OA}}-\overline{\mathrm{OB}})$$ = 0
⇒ $$(\overline{\mathrm{OH}}-\overline{\mathrm{OC}}) \cdot(\overline{\mathrm{OA}}-\overline{\mathrm{OB}})=0 \Rightarrow \overline{\mathrm{CH}} \cdot \overline{\mathrm{BA}}=0 \Rightarrow \overline{\mathrm{CH}} \perp \overline{\mathrm{BA}}$$
∴ The altitude through C also passes through H.
∴ The altitudes of a Ale are concurrent.

Question 2.
By vector method, prove that the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent. [Mar. ’92]
Let A, B, C be the vertices of a triangle. Let $$\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = a, $$\overline{\mathrm{OB}}$$ = b, $$\overline{\mathrm{OC}}$$ = c

Let D, E, F are the midpoints of BC, CA, AB respectively

∴ The bisector of AB passes through ‘O’.
∴ The perpendicular bisectors of a triangle are concurrent.

Question 3.
If a̅, b̅, c̅ be three vectors. Then show that (a̅ × b̅) × c̅ = (a̅. c̅) b̅ – (b̅ . c̅) a̅.
Let a̅ = a1 i̅ + a2 j̅ + a3k̅, b̅ = b1 i̅ + b2 j̅ + b3k̅ and c̅ = c1 i̅ + c2 j̅ + c3
= i̅ (a2b3 – a3b2) – j̅ (a1b3 – a1b3) + k̅ (a1b2 – a2b1)

(a̅ × b̅) × c̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \bar{i} & \bar{j} & \bar{k} \\ a_2 b_3-a_3 b_2 & a_3 b_1-a_1 b_3 & a_1 b_2-a_2 b_1 \\ c_1 & c_2 & c_3 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(a3b1c3 – a1b3c3 – a1b2c2 + a2b1c2) – j̅(a2b3c3 – a3b2c3 – a1b2c1 + a2b1c1) + k̅ (a2b3c2 – a3b2c2 – a3b1c1 + a1b3c1)
c̅.a̅ = (c1i̅ + c2j̅ + c3k̅). (a1i̅ + a2j̅ + a3k̅) = c1a1 + c2a2 + c3a3
c̅.b̅ = (c1i̅ + c2j̅ + c3k̅). (b1̅ + b2j̅ + b3k̅) = c1b1 + c2b2 + c3b3

Now (c̅.a̅)b̅ – (c̅.b̅)a̅ = (c1a1 + c2a2 + c3a3) (b1 i + b2 j + b3k) – (c1b1 + c2b2 + c2b3) (a1 i̅ + a2j̅ + a3k̅)
= a1b1c1 i̅ + a1b2c1 j̅ + a1b3c1 k̅ + a2b1c2 i̅ + a2b2c2j̅ + a2b3c2 k̅ + a3b1c3 i̅ + a3b2c3 i̅ + a3b2c3 j̅ + a3b3c3 k̅ – a1b1c1i̅ – a2b1c1j̅ – a3b21c1 k̅ – a1b2c2 i̅ – a1b2c2 j̅ – a3b2c2k̅ – a1b3c3i̅ – a2b3c3j̅ – a3b3c3
= i̅(a2b1c2 + a3b1c3 – a1b2c2 – a1b3c3) – j̅(-a1b2c1 – a3b2c3 + a2b1c1 + a22b3c3) + k̅(a1b3c1 + a2b3c2 – a3b1c1 – a3b2c2)
∴ (a̅ × b̅) × c̅ = (a̅. c̅) b̅ – (b̅ . c̅) a̅

Question 4.
Find the equation of the plane passing through the points A = (2, 3, -1), B = (4, 5, 2) and C = (3, 6, 5).
Let the position vectors of the points A, B and C with respect to the origin ‘O’ are
$$\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = 2 i̅ + 3 j̅ – k̅; $$\overline{\mathrm{OB}}$$ = 4 i̅ + 5 j̅ + 2k̅; $$\overline{\mathrm{OC}}$$ = 3 i̅ + 6 j̅ + 5k̅
Let r̅ = OP = x i̅ + y j̅ + zk̅ be the position vector of any point P in the plane of ΔABC.
AP = OP-OA = xi̅ + yj̅ + zk̅ – 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅ = (x – 2)i̅ + (y – 3)j̅ +(z + 1)k̅
AB = OB – OA = 4i̅ + 5j̅ + 2k̅ – 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅ = 2i̅ + 2j̅ + 3k̅
AC = OC -OA = 3i̅ + 6j̅ + 5k̅ – 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅ = i̅ + 3j̅ + 6k̅
The equation of the plane passing through the points A, B and C is $$[\overline{\mathrm{AP}} \overline{\mathrm{AB}} \overline{\mathrm{AC}}]$$ = 0
⇒ $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} x-2 & y-3 & z+1 \\ 2 & 2 & 3 \\ 1 & 3 & 6 \end{array}\right|$$ = 0
⇒ (x – 2) [12 – 9] – (y – 3) [12 – 3] + (z + 1) [6 – 2] = 0
⇒ (x – 2) (3) – (y – 3) (9) + (z + 1) (4) = 0
⇒ 3x – 6 – 9y + 27 + 4z + 4 = 0
⇒ 3x – 9y + 4z + 25 = 0.

Question 5.
Find the equation of the plane passing through the point A = (3, -2, -1) and parallel to the vectors b̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ + 4k̅ and c̅ = 3i̅ + 2j̅ – 5k̅. [May ’01]
The position vector of the point with respect to origin O’ is OA = 3 i̅ – 2 j̅ – k̅
Given b = i̅ – 2j̅ + 4k̅, c = 3i̅ + 2j̅ – 5k̅
Let r̅ = $$\overline{\mathrm{OP}}$$ = xi̅ + yj̅ + zk̅ be the position vectqr of any point P in the plane of AABC.
$$\overline{\mathrm{AP}}=\overline{\mathrm{OP}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = xi̅ +yj̅ + zk̅ – 3i̅ +2j̅ + k̅ = (x – 3)i̅ +(y + 2)j̅ +(z + 1)k̅

The equation of the plane passing through the point A parallel to the vectors b̅ & c̅ is [$$\overline{\mathrm{AP}} b̅ c̅ ] = 0 ⇒ \left|\begin{array}{ccc} x-3 & y+2 & z+1 \\ 1 & -2 & 4 \\ 3 & 2 & -5 \end{array}\right|$$ = 0
⇒ (x – 3)[10 – 8] – (y + 2)[-5 – 12] + (z + 1)[2 + 6] = 0
⇒ (x + 3)(2) – (y + 2)(-17) + (z + 1)(8) = 0
⇒ 2x – 6 + 17y + 34 + 8z + 8 = 0
⇒ 2x + 17y + 8z + 36 = 0.

Question 6.
Find the shortest distance between the skew lines r̅ = (6i̅ + 2j̅ + 2k̅) + t (i̅ – 2j̅ + 2k̅) and r̅ = (-4i̅ – k̅) + s (3i̅ – 2j̅ – 2k̅).
Given equations of the straight lines are r̅ = (6 i̅ + 2j̅ +2k̅) + t(i̅ – 2j̅ + 2k̅)

Comparing this equation with r̅ = a̅ + tb̅
a̅ = 6 i̅ + 2 j̅ + 2k̅, b̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ + 2k̅
r̅ = (- 4 i̅ – k̅) + s (3 i̅ – 2 j̅ – 2k̅)

Comparing this equation with r̅ = c̅ + sd̅
c̅ = -4i̅ – k̅, d̅ = 3i̅ – 2j̅ – 2k̅
a̅ – c̅ = 6i̅ + 2j̅ + 2k̅ + 4i̅ + k ̅= 10i̅ + 2j̅ + 3k̅
[a̅ – c̅ b̅d̅] = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} 10 & 2 & 3 \\ 1 & -2 & 2 \\ 3 & -2 & -2 \end{array}\right|$$ = 10(4 + 4) – 2(-2-6) + 3(-2 + 6)
= 10(8) – 2(-8) + 3(4) = 80 + 16 + 12 = 108

b̅ × d̅ =
= i̅(4 + 4) – j̅(-2-6) + k̅(-2+6) = 8i̅ + 8j̅ + 4k̅

|b̅ × d̅| = $$\sqrt{8^2+8^2+4^2}$$
= $$\sqrt{64+64+16}=\sqrt{144}$$
= 12

The shortest distance between the two skew lines is
PQ = $$\frac{\mid\left[\begin{array}{ll} \overline{\mathrm{a}}-\overline{\mathrm{c}} & \overline{\mathrm{b}} \overline{\mathrm{d}}] \end{array} \mid\right.}{|\overline{\mathrm{b}} \times \overline{\mathrm{d}}|}=\frac{|108|}{12}=\frac{108}{12}$$ = 9

Question 7.
If A = (1, – 2, – 1), B = (4,0, – 3), C = (1, 2, – 1) and D = (2, – 4, – 5), find the distance between $$\overline{\mathrm{A B}}$$ and $$\overline{\mathrm{C D}}$$.
Given points are A = (1, – 2, – 1), B = (4, 0, – 3), C = (1, 2, – 1), D = (2, -4,-5)

The vector equation of the straight line passing through the points A and B is
r = (1 – t)a̅ + tb̅, t ∈ R = (1 – t) (i̅ – 2j̅ – k̅) + t(4 i̅ – 3k̅) = i̅ – 2j̅ – k̅ – ti̅ + 2t j̅ + tk̅ + 4ti̅ – 3tk̅
= (i̅ – 2j̅ – k̅) + 3ti̅ +2tj̅ – 2tk̅
r = (i̅ – 2j̅ – k̅) + t(3i̅ + 2j̅ – 2k̅)

Comparing this equation with r̅ = a̅ + tb̅
We get a̅ = i̅ – 2 j̅ – k̅, b̅ = 3 i̅ + 2 j̅ – 2k̅

The vector equation of a straight line passing through the points C and D is
r̅ = (1 – s) c̅ + sd̅, s ∈ R = (1 – s) (i̅ + 2j̅ – k̅) + s(2i̅ – 4j̅ – 5k̅)
= i̅ + 2j̅ – k̅ – si̅ — 2s j̅ + sk̅ + 2si̅ – 4s j̅ – 5sk̅
= i̅ + 2j̅ – k̅ + si̅ – 6sj̅ – 4sk̅
r = (i̅ – 2 j̅ – k̅) + s(i̅ – 6j̅ – 4k̅)

Comparing this equation with r = c̅ + sd̅, we get c̅ = i̅ + 2j̅ – k̅, d̅ = i̅ – 6j̅ – 4k̅
a̅ – c̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ – k̅ – i̅ – 2j̅ + k̅ = – 4j̅
[a̅ – c̅ b̅d̅] = $$\left|\begin{array}{rrr} 0 & -4 & 0 \\ 3 & 2 & -2 \\ 1 & -6 & -4 \end{array}\right|$$
= 0(-8 – 12) + 4(-12 + 2) + 0(-18 – 2) = 0 + 4(-10) + 0 = -40

b̅ × d̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \overline{\mathbf{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 3 & 2 & -2 \\ 1 & -6 & -4 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(-8 – 12) – j̅(-12 + 2) + k̅(-18 – 2) = 20i̅ + 10j̅ – 20k̅

b̅ × d̅ = $$\sqrt{(-20)^2+(10)^2+(-20)^2}$$
= $$\sqrt{400+100+400}=\sqrt{900}$$
= 30

The shortest distance between the two skew lines is PQ = $$\frac{\left|\left[\begin{array}{ll} \bar{a}-\bar{c} & \bar{b} \bar{d} \end{array}\right]\right|}{|\bar{b} \times \bar{d}|}=\frac{|-40|}{30}=\frac{4}{3}$$

Question 8.
If a̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ + k̅, b̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ + k̅, c̅ = i̅ + 2j̅ – k̅ find a̅ × (b̅ × c̅) and |(a̅ × b̅) × c̅|.
Given vectors are a̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ + k̅, b̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ + k̅, c̅ = i̅ + 2j̅ – k̅

Question 9.
If a̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ – 3k̅, b̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ – k̅ and c̅ = i̅ + 3j̅ – 2k̅, verify that a̅ × (b̅ × c̅) = (a̅ × b̅) × c̅. [Mar ’11, ’98; Mar. ’08, ’04; B.P]
Given vectors a̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ – 3k̅, b̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ – k̅, c̅ = i̅ + 3j̅ – 2k̅

Question 10.
If a̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ – 3k̅, b̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ + k̅, c̅ = – i̅ + j̅ – 4k̅ and d̅ = i̅ + j̅ + k̅, then compute |(a̅ × b̅) × (c̅ × d̅)|. [Mar. ’15(TS); Mar. ’03]
Given vectors are a̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ – 3k̅, b̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ + k̅, c̅ = – i̅ + j̅ – 4k̅, d̅ = i̅ + j̅ + k̅

Question 11.
If a̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ + 3k̅, b̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ + k̅, c̅ = i̅ + j̅ + 2k̅, then find |(a̅ × b̅) × c̅| and |a̅ × (b̅ × c̅)|. [Mar. ’18(TS); Mar ’13]
Given vectors are a̅ = i̅ – 2j̅ + 3k̅, b̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ + k̅, c̅ = i̅ + j̅ + 2k̅
Now (a̅ × b̅) × c̅ = (a̅. c̅)b̅ – (b̅. c̅) a̅
= [(i̅ – 2j̅ + 3k̅). (i̅ + j̅ + 2k̅)] b̅ – [(2i̅ + j̅ + k̅). (i̅ + j̅ + 2k̅)]a̅
= (1 – 2 + 6)b̅ – (2 + 1 + 2)a̅ = 5b̅ – 5a̅
= 5 [2i̅ + j̅ + k̅ – i̅ + 2j̅ – 3k̅] = 5 [i̅ + 3j̅ – 2k̅]
|(a̅ × b̅) × c̅| = 57l + 9 + 4 = 57l4

a̅ × (b̅ × c̅) = (a̅. c̅)b̅ – (a̅. b̅) c̅
= [(i̅ – 2j̅ + 3k̅). (i̅ + j̅ + 2k̅)] b̅ – [(i̅ – 2j̅ + 3k̅). (2i̅ + j̅ + k̅)]c̅
= (1 – 2 + 6) b̅ – (2 – 2 + 3) c̅ = 5b̅ – 3c̅
= 5 (2 i̅ + j̅ + k̅) — 3(i̅ + j̅ + 2k̅) = 7 i̅ + 2 j̅ – k̅
Hence |a̅ × (b̅ × c̅) | = |7i̅ + 2j̅ – k̅|
= $$\sqrt{49+4+1}=\sqrt{54}$$ = 3√6

Question 12.
Let a̅ = 2i + j – 2k, b̅ = i + j. If c isavec- tor such that a̅.c̅ = |c̅|,|c̅-a̅| = 2√2 and the angle between a̅ × b̅ and c is 30°, then find the value of |(a̅ × b̅) × c̅|. [May ’15(TS)]
Given that a̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ – 2k̅, b̅ = i̅ + j̅
⇒ |a̅| = $$\sqrt{4+1+4}$$ = √9 =3, |b̅| = $$\sqrt{1+1}$$ = √2
also, a̅ . c̅ = |c̅| and |c̅ – a̅| = 2√2
⇒ (c̅ – a̅)2 = 8 ⇒ |c̅|2 + |a̅|2 – 2c̅.a̅ = 8
⇒ |c| + 9 – 2|c̅| = 8 ⇒ |c̅| — 2|c̅| + 1 = 0
⇒ (|c̅| – 1) = 0 ⇒ |c̅| = 1

Now a̅ × b̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \overline{\mathrm{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 2 & 1 & -2 \\ 1 & 1 & 0 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(0 + 2) – j̅(0 + 2) + k̅ (2 – 1) = 2i̅ – 2j̅ + k̅
|a̅ × b̅| = ^/4 + 4 + l =3
|(a̅ × b̅) × c̅| = |a̅ × b̅| |c̅| sin (a̅ × b̅, c̅)
= |a̅ × b̅| |c̅| sin 30° = 3.1.$$\frac{1}{2}=\frac{3}{2}$$

### Some More Maths 1A Product of Vectors Important Questions

Question 1.
If a̅ = 6i̅ + 2j̅ + 3k̅ and b̅ = 2i̅ – 9j̅ + 6k̅ then find a̅. b̅ and the angle between a̅ and b̅.
Given a̅ = 6i̅ + 2j̅ + 3k̅ and b̅ = 2i̅ – 9j̅ + 6k̅
Now a̅.b̅ = (6i̅ + 2j̅ + 3k̅).(2i̅ – 9j̅ + 6k̅) = 12 – 18 + 8 = 12

Let ‘θ’ be the angle between a̅ & b̅ then cos θ = $$\frac{\overline{\mathrm{a}} \cdot \overline{\mathrm{b}}}{|\overline{\mathrm{a}}||\overline{\mathrm{b}}|}=\frac{12}{7.11}=\frac{12}{77}$$
∴ θ = cos-1$$\left(\frac{12}{77}\right)$$

Question 2.
For what values of λ, the vectors i̅ – λj̅ + 2k̅ and 8i̅ + 6 j̅ – k̅ are at right angles ?
Let a̅ = i̅ – λj̅ + 2k̅ and b̅ = 8i̅ + 6j̅ – k̅
Since a,b form a right angle i.e., the vectors a and b are perpendicular then a̅ b̅ =0
(i̅ – λj̅ + 2k̅). (8i̅ + 6j̅ – k̅) = 0
⇒ 8 – 6λ – 2 = 0
⇒ 6 – 6λ = 0
⇒ 6λ = 6
⇒ λ = 1.

Question 3.
If the vectors λi̅ – 3j̅ + 5k̅ and 2λi̅ – A,j̅ – k̅ are perpendicular to each other then find X.
Let a̅ = λi̅ – 3j̅ + 5k̅ and b̅ = 2λi̅ – λj̅ – k̅
Since the vector a̅ = λi̅ – 3j̅ + 5k̅ and b̅ = 2λi̅ – λj̅ – k̅
(λi̅ – 3j̅ + 5k̅). (2λ.i̅ – λ j̅ -k̅) = 0
2 + 3λ – 5 = 0
2 + 5λ – 2λ – 5 = 0

λ(2λ + 5) – 1(2λ + 5) = 0
(2λ + 5) (λ – 1) = 0
2λ + 5 = 0, λ – 1 = 0
λ = $$\frac{-5}{2}$$, λ = 1
∴ λ = $$\frac{-5}{2}$$ (or) 1.

Question 4.
If a̅ = i̅ – j̅ – k̅ and b̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅, then find the projection vector of b on a and its magnitude.
Given vectors are a̅ = i̅ – j̅ – k̅ and b̅ = 2 i̅ – 3 j̅ + k̅
The projection vector of b̅ on a̅

Question 5.
Find the area of the parallelogram for which the vectors a̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ and b̅ =3i̅ – k̅ are adjacent sides.
Given vectors are = 2j̅ – 3j̅ and b̅ = 3i̅ – k̅
The area of the parallelogram for which the vectors and 6 are adjacent sides
= a̅ × b̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \overline{\mathrm{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 2 & -3 & 0 \\ 3 & 0 & -1 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(3 – o) – j̅(-2 – o) + k̅(0 + 9) = 3i̅ + 2j̅ + 9k̅
∴ Area of the parallelogram = |a̅ × b̅| = $$\sqrt{(3)^2+(2)^2+(9)^2}=\sqrt{9+4+81}=\sqrt{94}$$ sq.units.

Question 6.
If a̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + 5k̅, b̅ = -i̅ + 4j̅ + 2k̅ then find a̅ × b̅ and unit vector perpendicular to both a̅ and b̅.
Given a̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + 5k̅, b̅ = -i̅ + 4j̅ + 2k̅
a̅ × b̅ =
= i̅(-6 – 20) – j̅(4 + 5) + k(8 – 3) = 26i̅ – 9j̅ + 5k̅
|a̅ × b̅| = $$\sqrt{(-26)^2+(-9)^2+(5)^2}=\sqrt{676+81+25}$$
= $$\sqrt{782}$$
∴ The unit vector perpendicular to both a̅ & b̅ is = $$\frac{(\overline{\mathrm{a}} \times \overline{\mathrm{b}})}{|\overline{\mathrm{a}} \times \overline{\mathrm{b}}|}=\pm \frac{(-26 \overline{\mathrm{i}}-9 \overline{\mathrm{j}}+5 \overline{\mathrm{k}})}{\sqrt{782}}$$

Question 7.
Find unit vector perpendicular to both i̅ + j̅ + k̅ and 2i̅ + j̅ + 3k̅.
Let a̅ = i̅ + j̅ + k̅, b̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ + 3k̅
a̅ × b̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \overline{\mathrm{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 2 & 1 & 3 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(3 – 1) – j̅(3 – 2) + k̅(1 – 2)
= 2i̅ – j̅ – k̅
|a̅ × b̅| = $$\sqrt{(2)^2+(-1)^2+(-1)^2}=\sqrt{4+1+1}$$ = √6
∴ The unit vector perpendicular to both a̅ & b̅ is = $$\pm \frac{(\overline{\mathrm{a}} \times \overline{\mathrm{b}})}{|\overline{\mathrm{a}} \times \overline{\mathrm{b}}|}=\pm \frac{(2 \overline{\mathrm{i}}-\overline{\mathrm{j}}-\overline{\mathrm{k}})}{\sqrt{6}}$$

Question 8.
If θ is the angle between the vector i̅ + j̅ and j̅ + k̅, then find sin θ.
Let a̅ = i̅ + j̅ , b̅ = j̅ + k̅
a̅ × b̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \overline{\mathrm{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 1 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(1 – 0) – j̅(1 – 0) + k̅(1 – 0) = i̅ – j̅ + k̅

If ‘θ’ is the angle between the vector a̅ & b̅ then sin θ = $$\frac{(\overline{\mathrm{a}} \times \overline{\mathrm{b}})}{|\overline{\mathrm{a}}| \overline{\mathrm{b}} \mid}=\frac{\sqrt{3}}{\sqrt{2} \cdot \sqrt{2}}=\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}$$

Question 9.
If a̅ = (1, – 1, -6), b̅ = (1, -3, 4) and c̅ = (2, -5, 3), then compute a̅.(b̅ × c̅).
Given a̅ = (1, – 1, -6), b̅ = (1, -3, 4), c̅ = (2, -5, 3)
Now a̅.(b̅ × c̅) = [a̅ b̅ c̅]= 1 —3 4
= 1(-9 + 20) + 1(3 – 8) – 6(-5 + 6)
= 11 – 5 – 6 = 0

Question 10.
Find the volume of the parallelopiped whose coterminus edges are represented by the vectors 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅, i̅ -j̅ + 2k̅ and 2i̅ + j̅ – k̅ .
Let a̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅, b̅ = i̅ -j̅ + 2k̅, c̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ – k̅
Volume of the parallelopiped
V = |[a̅ b̅ c̅]|
[a̅ b̅ c̅] = $$\left|\begin{array}{rrr} 2 & -3 & 1 \\ 1 & -1 & 2 \\ 2 & 1 & -1 \end{array}\right|$$ = 2(1 – 2) + 3(-1-4) + 1(1 + 2)
= -2 – 15 + 3 = -14

∴ |[a̅ b̅ c̅]| = 14 cubic units

Question 11.
Find ‘t’ for which the vectors 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅, i̅ + 2j̅ – 3k̅ and j̅ – tk̅ are coplanar.
Let a̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅, b̅ = i̅ + 2j̅ – 3k̅, c̅ = j̅ – tk̅
Since the vectors are coplanar then [a̅ b̅ c̅] = 0
⇒  = 0
⇒ 2(-2t + 3) + 3(-t – 0) + 1(1 – 0) = 0
⇒ -4t + 6 – 3t + 1 = 0
⇒ -7t + 7 = 0
⇒ t = 1

Question 12.
If the vectors a̅ = 2i̅ – j̅ + k̅, b̅ = i̅ + 2j̅ – 3k̅ and c̅ = 3i̅ + pj̅ + 5k̅ are coplanar then find p.
Given a̅ = 2i̅ – j̅ + k̅, b̅ = i̅ + 2j̅ – 3k̅, c̅ = 3i̅ + pj̅ + 5k̅
Since the vectors are coplanar then [a̅ b̅ c̅] = 0
⇒ $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} 2 & -1 & 1 \\ 1 & 2 & -3 \\ 3 & \mathrm{p} & 5 \end{array}\right|$$ = 0
= 2(10 + 3p) + 1(5 + 9) + 1(p – 6) = 0
⇒ 20 + 6p + 14 + p – 6 = 0
⇒ 7p + 28 = 0
⇒ p = -4

Question 13.
In ΔABC if $$\overline{\mathrm{B C}}$$ = a̅, $$\overline{\mathrm{C A}}$$ = b̅ and $$\overline{\mathrm{A B}}$$ = c̅ then show that a̅ × b̅ = b̅ × c̅ = c̅ × a̅.
a̅ + b̅ + c̅ = $$\overline{\mathrm{BC}}+\overline{\mathrm{CA}}+\overline{\mathrm{AB}}=\overline{\mathrm{BA}}+\overline{\mathrm{AB}}=\overline{0}$$ (by vector addition)
∴ a̅ + b̅ = -c̅

⇒ a̅ × b̅ = c̅ × a̅ ………….(1) (∵ a̅ × a̅ = 0)
Again a̅ + b̅ = -c̅
(a̅ + b̅) × b̅ = -c̅ × b̅ ⇒ a̅ × b̅ + b̅ × b̅ = b̅ × c̅
⇒ a̅ × b̅ = b̅ × c̅ ……………..(2) (∵ b̅ × b̅ = 0)
∴ From (1) and (2); a̅ × b̅ = b̅ × c̅ = c̅ × a̅

Question 14.
Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane determined by the points P(1, – 1, 2), Q(2, 0, – 1) and R (0, 2, 1).
Let O be the origin.
$$\overline{\mathrm{OP}}$$ = i̅ – j̅ + 2k̅, $$\overline{\mathrm{OQ}}$$ = 2i̅ – k̅, $$\overline{\mathrm{OR}}$$ = 2j̅ + k̅
$$\overline{\mathrm{PQ}}=\overline{\mathrm{OQ}}-\overline{\mathrm{OP}}$$ = (2i̅ – k̅)-(i̅ – j̅ + 2k̅) = i̅ + j̅ – 3k̅
$$\overline{\mathrm{PR}}=\overline{\mathrm{OR}}-\overline{\mathrm{OP}}$$ = (2j̅ + k̅) – (i̅ – j̅ + 2k̅) =-i̅ + 3j̅ – k̅

Now $$\overline{\mathrm{PQ}} \times \overline{\mathrm{PR}}$$ = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \overline{\mathrm{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 1 & 1 & -3 \\ -1 & 3 & -1 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(-1 + 9) – j̅(-1 – 3) + k̅(3 + 1)
= 8i̅ + 4j̅ + 4k̅
= 4(2i̅ + j̅ + k̅)

$$|\overline{\mathrm{PQ}} \times \overline{\mathrm{PR}}|=4 \sqrt{4+1+1}$$ = 4√6
∴ Unit vector perpendicular to the plane determined by the points P, Q and R is
= $$\pm \frac{(\overline{\mathrm{PQ}} \times \overline{\mathrm{PR}})}{|\overline{\mathrm{PQ}} \times \overline{\mathrm{PR}}|}=\pm \frac{4(2 \overline{\mathrm{i}}+\overline{\mathrm{j}}+\overline{\mathrm{k}})}{4 \sqrt{6}}=\pm\left(\frac{2 \overline{\mathrm{i}}+\overline{\mathrm{j}}+\overline{\mathrm{k}}}{\sqrt{6}}\right)$$

Question 15.
If a̅, b̅ and c̅ are non coplanar vectors, then prove that the four points with position vectors 2a̅ + 3b̅ – c̅, a̅ – 2b̅ + 3c̅, 3a̅ + 4b̅ – 2c̅ and a̅ – 6b̅ + 6c̅ are coplanar.
Suppose A, B, C, D are the given points with respect to a fixed origin ‘O’ and given that
$$\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = 2a̅ + 3b̅ – c̅,
$$\overline{\mathrm{OB}}$$ = a̅ – 2b̅ + 3c̅ ,
$$\overline{\mathrm{OC}}$$ = 3a̅ + 4b̅ – 2c̅ and
$$\overline{\mathrm{OD}}$$ = a̅ – 6b̅ + 6c̅
$$\overline{\mathrm{AB}}=\overline{\mathrm{OB}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = (a̅ – 2b̅ + 3c̅) – (2a̅ + 3b̅ – c̅) = – a̅ – 5b̅ + 4c̅
$$\overline{\mathrm{AC}}=\overline{\mathrm{OC}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = (3a̅ + 4b̅ – 2c̅) – (2a̅ + 3b̅ – c̅) = a̅ + b̅ – c̅
$$\overline{\mathrm{AD}}=\overline{\mathrm{OD}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ =(a̅ – 6b̅ + 6c̅) – (2a̅ + 3b̅ – c̅) = -a̅ – 9b̅ + 7c̅
∴ $$\left[\begin{array}{lll} \overline{\mathrm{AB}} & \overline{\mathrm{AC}} & \overline{\mathrm{AD}} \end{array}\right]=\left|\begin{array}{rrr} -1 & -5 & 4 \\ 1 & 1 & -1 \\ -1 & -9 & 7 \end{array}\right|$$ [a̅ b̅ c̅]
=[-1(7 – 9)+ 5(7 – 1)+ 4 (-9 + 1)] [a̅ b̅ c̅]
= [-1(- 2) + 5 (6) + 4 (- 8)] [a b c]
= (2 + 30 – 32) [a̅ b̅ c̅] = 0
Hence the given points A, B, C, D are coplanar.

Question 16.
If a, b, c are three vectors, then show that a̅ × (b̅ × c̅) = (a̅ . c̅) b̅ – (b̅. c̅) a̅.
Case – (i) : If a and b are parallel, then the result is true.
Case – (ii) : If a and b are not parallel, then suppose $$\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = a̅ and $$\overline{\mathrm{OB}}$$ = b̅ with respect to an origin O. Since a and b are not parallel we have O, A, B are non collinear and hence determine a plane.
Let i̅ be a unit vector along OA and j̅ be a unit vector perpendicular to i̅ in XY plane, k̅ is a unit vector perpendicular to XZ plane such that i̅, j̅, k̅ form a right handed system and k̅ = i̅ × j̅

∴ a̅ = a1i̅, b̅ = b1i̅ + b2j̅, c̅ = c1i̅ + c2j̅ + c3k̅ for a1, b1, c1, c2, c3, b2 being scalars.
Since a̅ and b̅ are non parallel,
a̅ × b̅ = a1i̅ × (b1j̅ i̅ + b2j̅) = a1b2
∴ (a̅ × b̅) × c̅ = (a1b2k) × (c1i̅  + c2j + c3k) = a1b2c1j̅ – a1b2c2i̅ ……………….(1)
(a̅.c̅)b̅ —(b̅.c̅)a̅ = a1c1 (b1i̅ + b2j̅) – (b1c1 + b2c2) a1i̅ = a1c1b2j̅ – a1b2c2i̅ ……………. (2)
From (1) and (2),
∴ (a̅ × b̅) × c̅ = (a̅.c̅)b̅ – (b̅.c̅)a̅

Question 17.
Find the cartesian equation of the plane through the point A (2, – 1, – 4) and parallel to the plane 4x – 12y – 3z – 7 = 0.
The equation of the parallel plane is 4x – 12y – 3z = p
It passes through A (2, – 1, – 4) then 4 (2) – 12 (- 1) – 3 (- 4) = p
⇒ 8 + 12 + 12 = p
⇒ p = 32
∴ The equation of the required plane is 4x – 12y – 3z = 32

Question 18.
Find the angle between the planes 2x – 3y – 6z = 5 and 6x + 2y – 9z = 4.
Equation of the plane is 2x – 3y – 6z = 5 ⇒ r̅ . (2 i̅ – 3 j̅ – 6k̅) = 5 …………….(1)
Similarly 6x + 2y- 9z = 4 ⇒ r̅ . (6i̅ + 2 j̅ – 9k̅) = 4 ………………(2)
If the angle between the planes r̅. n̅1 = d1 and r̅.n̅2 = d2 is θ then
cos θ = $$=\frac{\overline{\mathrm{n}}_1 \cdot \overline{\mathrm{n}}_2}{\left|\overline{\mathrm{n}}_1\right|\left|\overline{\mathrm{n}}_2\right|}$$
= $$\frac{(2 \overline{\mathrm{i}}-3 \overline{\mathrm{j}}-6 \overline{\mathrm{k}}) \cdot(6 \overline{\mathrm{i}}+2 \overline{\mathrm{j}}-9 \overline{\mathrm{k}})}{\sqrt{4+9+36} \sqrt{36+4+81}}=\frac{12-6+54}{7(11)}$$
= $$\frac{60}{77}$$
∴ θ = cos-1$$\left(\frac{60}{77}\right)$$

Question 19.
a̅ = 2i̅ – j̅ + k̅, b̅ = i̅ – 3 j̅ – 5k̅. Find the vector c̅ such that a̅, b̅ and c̅ form the sides of a triangle.
a̅ = 2i̅ – j̅ + k̅, b̅ = i̅ – 3j̅ – 5k̅

∵ a̅, b̅, c̅ form the sides of a triangle a̅ + b̅ + c̅ = 0 (∵ $$\overline{\mathrm{AB}}+\overline{\mathrm{BC}}+\overline{\mathrm{CA}}$$ = 0)
∴ c̅ = -a̅ – b̅ = -(2i̅ – j̅ + k̅) – (i̅ – 3j̅ – 5k̅) = -3i̅ + 4j̅ + 4k̅

Question 20.
Find the angle between the planes r̅ (2i̅ – j̅ + 2k̅) = 3 and r̅ . (3i̅ + 6j̅ + k̅) = 4. [Mar. ’15(TS)]
If the angle between planes r̅.n̅1 = p1 and r̅.n̅2 = p2 is θ
then cos θ = $$\frac{\bar{n}_1 \cdot \bar{n}_2}{\left|\bar{n}_1\right| \cdot\left|\bar{n}_2\right|}=\frac{(2 \overline{\mathrm{i}}-\overline{\mathrm{j}}+2 \overline{\mathrm{k}}) \cdot(3 \overline{\mathrm{i}}+6 \overline{\mathrm{j}}+\overline{\mathrm{k}})}{\sqrt{4+1+4} \sqrt{9+36+1}}$$
= $$\frac{6-6+2}{3 \sqrt{46}}=\frac{2}{3 \sqrt{46}}$$
∴ θ = cos-1$$\left(\frac{2}{3 \sqrt{46}}\right)$$

Question 21.
If a̅ + b̅ + c̅ = 0, |a̅| = 3, |b̅| =5 and |c̅| = 7, then find the angle between a̅ and b̅.
Given a̅ + b̅ + c̅ = 0 ⇒ c̅ =-(a̅ + b̅)
⇒ |c̅|2 = (a̅ + b̅) = a̅2 + b̅2 + 2(a̅ b̅)
⇒ 49 = 9 + 25 + 2(a̅ b̅)
⇒ 2(a̅.b̅) = 49 – 34 = 15
⇒ a̅ . b̅ = $$\frac{15}{2}$$

If θ is the angle between a and b then cos θ = $$\frac{\overline{\mathrm{a}} \cdot \overline{\mathrm{b}}}{|\overline{\mathrm{a}}||\overline{\mathrm{b}}|}=\frac{\frac{15}{2}}{3(5)}$$
= $$\frac{15}{2} \cdot \frac{1}{15}=\frac{1}{2}$$
∴ θ = cos-1$$\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)=\frac{\pi}{3}$$
∴ Angle between a̅ and b̅ is $$\frac{\pi}{3}$$

Question 22.
If |a̅| = 2, |b̅| =3 and |c̅| = 4 and each of a̅, b̅, c̅ is perpendicular to the sum of the other two vectors, then find the magnitude of a̅ + b̅ + c̅.
Given |a̅| = 2, |b̅| = 3 and |c̅| = 4
Since each of a̅, b̅, c̅ is perpendicular to the sum of other two vectors i.e., a̅ is perpendicular to b̅ + c̅.
.\a̅ – (b̅ + c̅) = 0
⇒ a̅ – b̅ + a̅ – c̅= 0
Similarly b̅ (c̅ + a̅) = 0
⇒ b̅ c̅ + b̅ a̅ = 0 and c̅.(a̅ + b̅) = 0
⇒ c̅.a̅ + c̅.b̅ = 0
Adding we get 2 [(a̅. b̅) + (b̅. c̅) + (c̅ . a̅)] = 0 ……………..(1)
Also (a̅ + b̅ + c̅) =|a̅|2 + |b̅|2 + |c̅|2 + 2(a̅b̅ + b̅c̅ + c̅a̅)
=4 + 9 + 16 + 2(a̅b̅ + b̅c̅ + c̅a̅)
= 4 + 9 + 16 + 2 (0) = 29
∴ |a̅ + b̅ + c̅| = $$\sqrt{29}$$

Question 23.
For any two vectors a̅ and b̅ show that |a̅ × b̅|2 = $$\overline{\mathrm{a}^2} \overline{\mathrm{b}^2}-(\overline{\mathrm{a}} \cdot \overline{\mathrm{b}})^2$$
We know that |a̅ × b̅| = |a̅| |b̅| sin θ, where ‘θ’ is the angle between a̅ and b̅.
Squaring on both sides |a̅ × b̅| = |a̅|2 |b̅|2 sin2 θ = |a̅| |b̅| (1 – cos2 θ)
= |a̅| |b̅̅| – |a̅|2 |b̅|2 cos2 θ
= $$\overline{\mathrm{a}^2} \overline{\mathrm{b}^2}-(\overline{\mathrm{a}} \cdot \overline{\mathrm{b}})^2$$

Question 24.
Find the area of the triangle formed by the two sides a̅ = i̅ + 2j̅ + 3k̅ and b̅ = 3i̅ + 5j̅ – k̅.
Given a̅ = i̅ + 2 j̅ + 3k̅ and b̅ = 3 i̅ + 5 j̅ – k̅
Then a̅ × b̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{rrr} \overline{\mathrm{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 1 & 2 & 3 \\ 3 & 5 & -1 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(-2 – 15) – j̅(-1 – 9) + k̅(5 – 6)
= -17i̅ + 10j̅ – k̅
Area of the triangle = $$\frac{1}{2}$$|a̅ × b̅| = $$\frac{1}{2} \sqrt{289+100+1}=\frac{1}{2} \sqrt{390}$$

Question 25.
For any vector g show that |a̅ × i̅|2 + |a̅ × j̅|2 +|a̅ × k̅|2 = 2|a̅|2.
Let a̅ = xi̅ + yj̅ + zk̅, then a̅ × i̅ = -yk̅ + zj̅
|a̅ × i̅|2 = y2 + z2
Similarly |a̅ × j̅|2 = z2 + x2 and |a̅ × k̅| = x2+ y2
∴ |a̅ × i̅|2 + |a̅ × j̅|2 + |a̅ × k̅|2 = 2(x2 + y2 + z2) = 2|a̅|2

Question 26.
Find the area of the triangle having 3i̅ + 4j̅ and – 5i̅ + 7j̅ as two of its sides.
Area of the triangle = $$\frac{1}{2}|\overline{\mathrm{AB}} \times \overline{\mathrm{AC}}|$$
$$\overline{\mathrm{AB}} \times \overline{\mathrm{AC}}$$ = (3i̅ + 4 j̅) × (- 5i̅ + 7j̅) =-15(i̅ × i̅) – 20(j̅ × j̅) + 21(i̅ × j̅) + 28(j̅ × j̅)
= 20k̅ + 21k̅ = 41k̅
∴ Area of the ΔABC = $$\frac{1}{2}$$(41) = 20.5 sq. units

Question 27.
If a̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ – k̅, b̅ = -i̅ + 2j̅ – 4k̅ and c̅ = i̅ + j̅ + k̅, then find (a̅ × b̅) . (b̅ × c̅).
Given a̅ = 2i̅ + j̅ – k̅, b̅ = -i̅ + 2j̅ – 4k̅ and c̅ = i̅ + j̅ + k̅
Then a̅ × b̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{rrr} \bar{i} & \bar{j} & \bar{k} \\ 2 & 1 & -1 \\ -1 & 2 & -4 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(-4 + 2) – j̅(-8 – 1) + k̅(4 + 1) = -2i̅ + 9j̅ + 5k̅

b̅ × c̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{rrr} \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ -1 & 2 & -4 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(2 + 4) – j̅(-1 + 4) + k̅(-1 – 2) = 6i̅ – 3j̅ – 3k̅
(a̅ × b̅).(b̅ × c̅) = (-2i̅ + 9j̅ + 5k̅).(6i̅ – 3j̅ – 3k̅) = -12 – 27 – 15 = -54

Question 28.
Find the vector area and the area of the parallelogram having a̅ = i̅ + 2j̅ – k̅ and b̅ = 2i̅ – j̅ + 2k̅ as adjacent sides.
Given a̅ = i̅ + 2 j̅ – k̅ and b̅ = 2 i̅ – j̅ + 2k̅
Then the vector area of parallelogram = a̅ × b̅
∴ (a̅ × b̅) = $$\left|\begin{array}{rrr} \bar{i} & \bar{j} & \bar{k} \\ 1 & 2 & -1 \\ 2 & -1 & 2 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(4 – 1) – j̅(2 + 2) + k̅(-1 – 4) = 3i̅ – 4j̅ – 5k̅
Magnitude of the area = $$\sqrt{9+16+25}=\sqrt{50}$$ = 5√2 sq. units

Question 29.
If a̅ × b̅ = b̅ × c̅ ≠ 0, then show that a̅ + c̅ = pb̅, where p is some scalar.
Consider (a̅ + c̅ – pb̅) × b̅ = (a̅ × b̅) + (c̅ × b̅) – p(b̅ × b̅) = (b̅ × c̅) – (b̅ × c̅) – p(0) = 0
∴ a̅ + c̅ – pb̅ = 0
⇒ a̅ + c̅ = pb̅

Question 30.
Let a and b be vectors, satisfying |a̅|=|b̅| = 5 and (a̅, b̅) = 45°. Find the area of the triangle having a̅ – 2b̅ and 3a̅ + 2b̅ as two of its sides. [May ’15(AP); Mar. ’07] [Mar ’18(AP)]
Area of the triangle = $$\frac{1}{2}$$|(a̅ – 2b̅) × (3a̅ + 2b̅)| ……………(1)
Now |(a̅ – 2b̅) × (3a̅ + 2b̅)| = |3(a̅ × a̅) – 2(b̅ × a̅) – 6(b̅ × a̅) – 4(b̅ × b̅)|
= |2(a̅ × b̅) + 6(a̅ × b̅)| = |8(a̅ × b̅)| = 8|a||b| sin 45°
= 8(5)(5)$$\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}$$
= 100√2

Question 31.
Let a̅ and b̅ be vectors, satisfying |a̅| = |b̅| = 5 and (a̅, b̅) = 45°. Find the area of the triangle having a̅ – 2b̅ and 3a̅ + 2b̅ as two of Its sides. [May ’15(AP); Mar. ’07] [Mar ’18(AP)]
Area of the triangle = $$\frac{1}{2}$$|(a̅ – 2b̅) × (3a̅ + 2b̅)| ………….(1)
Now |(a̅ – 2b̅) × (3a̅ + 2b̅)| = |3(a̅ × a̅) – 2(b̅ × a̅) – 6(b̅ × a̅) – 4(b̅ × b̅)|
= |2(a̅ × b̅) + 6(a̅ × b̅)| = |8(a̅ × b̅)| = 8|a̅||b̅| sin 45
= 8(5)(5)$$\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}$$
= 100√2

From (1), Area of the triangle = $$\frac{1}{2}$$(100)√2 = 50√2 sq.units

Question 32.
Find the volume of the tetrahedron having the edges i̅ + j̅ + k̅; i̅ – j̅ and i̅ + 2j̅ + k̅.
Denoting the edges by a̅ ,b̅, c̅ of tetrahedron, then its volume is
= $$\frac{1}{6}$$[a̅ b̅ c̅] = $$\frac{1}{6}\left|\begin{array}{ccc} 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 & -1 & 0 \\ 1 & 2 & 1 \end{array}\right|$$ = $$\frac{1}{6}$$ [1 (- 1) – 1 (1) + 1 (2 + 1)]
= $$\frac{1}{6}$$ [-1 – 1 + 3] = $$\frac{1}{6}$$ cubic units.

Question 33.
If a̅, b̅, c̅ are mutually perpendicular unit vectors, then find the value of [a̅ b̅ c̅]2.
Given a̅, b̅, c̅ are mutually perpendicular unit vectors.
We have |a̅| = |b̅| = |c̅| = 1 and taking a̅ = i̅, b̅ = j̅, c̅ = k̅
We have [a̅ b̅ c̅] = [i̅ j̅ k̅] = i̅ . (j̅ × k̅) = i̅ . i̅ = 1
∴ [a̅ b̅ c̅]2 =1

Question 34.
Show that (a̅ + b̅) – (b̅ + c̅) × (c̅ + a̅) = 2 [a̅ b̅ c̅]
(a̅ + b̅) . (b̅ + c̅) × (c̅ + a̅) = $$\left|\begin{array}{lll} 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 & 1 \end{array}\right|$$ [a̅ b̅ c̅]
= [1(1) – 1(-1)][a̅ b̅ c̅]
= 2[a̅ b̅ c̅]

Question 35.
Prove that a̅ × [a̅ × (a̅ × b̅)] = (a̅ . a̅) (b̅ × a̅)
L.H.S = a̅ × [a̅ × (a̅ × b̅)] = a̅ × [(a̅ . b̅)a̅ – (a̅. a̅)b̅]
= (a̅ . b̅) (a̅ × a̅) – (a̅ . a̅) (a̅ × b̅)
= (a̅ . b̅) (0) – (a̅ a̅) (a̅ × b̅)
= (a̅.a̅)(b̅ × a̅) = R.H.S.

Question 36.
If a, b, c and d are coplanar vectors, then show that (a̅ × b̅) × (c̅ × d̅) = 0.
Given a,b,c,d are coplanar vectors ⇒ a̅ × b̅ is perpendicular to the plane S.
In the similar way c̅ × d̅ is perpendicular to the plane S.
a̅ × b̅ and c̅ × d̅ are parallel vectors.
⇒ (a̅ × b̅) × (c̅ × d̅) = 0 (or) (a̅ × b̅) × (c̅ × d̅) = [a̅ c̅ d̅]b̅ – [b̅ c̅ d̅]a̅
= 0b̅ – 0a̅ = 0 (∵ a̅, b̅, c̅, d̅ are coplanar)

Question 37.
If a, b, c are non coplanar, then show that the vectors a̅ – b̅, b̅ + c̅, c̅ + a̅ are coplanar.
Given that a̅, b̅, c̅ are non coplanar we have [a̅ b̅ c̅] ≠ 0
[a̅ – b̅ b̅ + c̅ c̅ + a̅] = [a̅ b̅ c̅] = [1 + 1(-1)][a̅ b̅ c̅] = 0
[a̅ b̅ c̅] = 0
∴ Vectors a̅ – b̅, b̅ + c̅, c̅ + a̅ are coplanar.

Question 38.
Let a̅, b̅ and c̅ be non coplanar vectors. If [2a̅ – b̅ + 3c̅, a̅ + b̅ – 2c̅, a̅ + b̅ – 3c̅] = λ [a̅ b̅ c̅] then find the value of λ.
Given a̅, b̅, c̅ are non coplanar vectors
We have [a̅ b̅ c̅] ≠ 0
1 1 -2 [a̅ b̅ c̅] = [2 (- 3 + 2) + 1 (- 3 + 2) + 3 (1 – 1)] [a̅ b̅ c̅]
= [-2 – 1] [a̅ b̅ c̅] = -3[a̅ b̅ c̅]
Given [2a̅ – b̅ + 3c̅, a̅ + b̅ – 2c̅, a̅ + b̅ – 3c̅] = λ [a̅ b̅ c̅]
We have – 3 [a̅ b̅ c̅] = λ [a̅ b̅ c̅]
⇒ λ = -3

Question 39.
If a̅ = (1, – 1, – 6), b̅ = (1, – 3, 4) and c̅ = (2, – 5, 3), then compute a̅ × (b̅ × c̅)
Given a̅ = (1, – 1, – 6), b̅ = (1, – 3, 4), c̅ = (2, – 5, 3)
Now b̅ × c̅ = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \bar{i} & \bar{j} & \bar{k} \\ 1 & -3 & 4 \\ 2 & -5 & 3 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(-9 + 20) – j̅(3 – 8) + k̅(-5 + 6)
= i̅(11) – 7(-5) + k(1) = 11i̅ + 5j̅ + k̅

a̅ × (b̅ × c̅) = $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} \overline{\mathrm{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 1 & -1 & -6 \\ 11 & 5 & 1 \end{array}\right|$$ = i̅(-1 + 30) – j̅ (1 + 66) + k̅(5 + 11)
= i̅(29) – j̅(67) + k̅(16)
= 29i̅ – 67j̅ + 16k̅

Question 40.
If |a̅| = 11, |b̅| = 23 and |a̅ – b̅| = 30, then find the angle between the vectors a̅, b̅ and also find |a̅ + b̅|.
|a̅ – b̅| = 30 ⇒|a̅ – b̅|2 = 900
⇒ |a̅|2 + |b̅|2 – 2(a̅.b̅) = 900
⇒ 121 + 529 – 2(a̅. b̅) = 900
⇒ 650 -2(a̅ . b̅) = 900
⇒ -2(a-b) = 250
⇒ -2 |a̅| |b̅| cos θ = 250
⇒ (-2)(253)cos θ = 25O
⇒ cos θ = $$\frac{125}{253}$$
⇒ θ = π – cos-1$$\left(\frac{125}{253}\right)$$

Also |a̅ + b̅|2 = |a̅|2 + |b̅|2 + 2(a̅.b̅) = 112 + 232 + 2|a̅||b̅|cos θ
= 121 + 529 + 2(11)(23)$$\left(\frac{-125}{253}\right)$$ = 400
∴ |a̅ + b̅| = 20

Question 41.
Find λ in order that the four points A(3, 2, λ), B(4, λ, 5), C(4, 2, -2) and D(6, 5, – λ) be coplanar.
$$\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = 3i̅ + 2j̅ + k̅; $$\overline{\mathrm{OB}}$$ = 4i̅ + λj̅ + 5k̅; $$\overline{\mathrm{OC}}$$ = 4i̅ + 2j̅ – 2k̅ and $$\overline{\mathrm{OD}}$$ = 6i̅ + 5j̅ – k̅
$$\overline{\mathrm{AB}}=\overline{\mathrm{OB}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = i̅ + (A – 2) j̅ + 4k̅;
$$\overline{\mathrm{AC}}=\overline{\mathrm{OC}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = i̅ – 3k̅;
$$\overline{\mathrm{AD}}=\overline{\mathrm{OD}}-\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = 3i̅ + 3j̅ – 2k̅

Given A, B, C, D are coplanar
⇒ $$\overline{\mathrm{AB}}, \overline{\mathrm{AC}}, \overline{\mathrm{AD}}$$ are coplanar
⇒ $$\left[\begin{array}{lll} \overline{\mathrm{AB}} & \overline{\mathrm{AC}} & \overline{\mathrm{AD}} \end{array}\right]$$ = 0
⇒ $$\left|\begin{array}{ccc} 1 & \lambda-2 & 4 \\ 1 & 0 & -3 \\ 3 & 3 & -2 \end{array}\right|$$ = 0
⇒ 1 (9) – (λ – 2) (- 2 + 9) + 4(3) = 0
⇒ 21 – (λ – 2) (7) = 0
⇒ λ – 2 = 3
⇒ λ = 5

Question 42.
For any two vectors a̅ and b̅, show that (1 + |a̅|)2 (1 + |b̅|)2 = |1 – a̅. b̅|2 + |a̅ + b̅ + a̅ × b̅|2
Let |a̅| = a̅, |b̅| = b̅, (a̅, b̅) = θ.
LHS = (1 + a2) (1 + b2)
= 1 + a2 + b2 + a2 b2 …………..(1)
a̅. b̅ = |a̅||b̅| cos 9 = ab cos θ
|a̅ × b̅| = |a̅| |b̅| sin θ = ab sin θ
RHS = (1 – a . b)2 + (a̅ + b̅ + a̅ × b̅)2
= 1 + (a̅ b̅)2 – 2a̅ b̅ + a̅2 + b̅2 + |a̅ × b̅| + 2 a̅ . b̅ + 2(b̅ . a̅ × b̅) + 2(a̅ × b̅ . a̅)
= 1 + a̅22 cos2 θ + a̅2 + b̅2 + a̅22 sin2 θ + 0 + 0
= 1 + a̅22 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ) + a̅2 + b̅2
= 1 + a̅22 (1) + a̅2 +b̅2
= 1 + a̅22 + a̅2 + b̅2
= 1 + a̅2 + b̅2 + a̅22
= RHS.

Question 43.
If a̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅ and b̅ = i̅ + 4j̅ – 2k̅, then find (a̅ + b̅) × (a̅ – b̅)
Given a̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅
b̅ = i̅ + 4j̅ – 2k̅
Now
a̅ + b̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅ + i̅ + 4j̅ – 2k̅ = 3i̅ + j̅ – k̅
a̅ – b̅ = 2i̅ – 3j̅ + k̅ – i̅ – 4j̅ + 2k̅ = i̅ – 7j̅ + 3k̅
(a̅ + b̅) x (a̅ – b̅) = $$\left|\begin{array}{rrr} \overline{\mathrm{i}} & \overline{\mathrm{j}} & \overline{\mathrm{k}} \\ 3 & 1 & -1 \\ 1 & -7 & 3 \end{array}\right|$$
= i̅(3 – 7) – j̅(9 + 1) + k̅(-21 – 1)
= -4i̅ – 10j̅ – 22k̅

Question 44.
Show that the volume of a tetrahedron with a̅, b̅ and c̅ as coterminous edges is $$\frac{1}{6}$$|[a̅ b̅ c̅]|
Let OABC be a tetrahedron and
$$\overline{\mathrm{OA}}$$ = a̅, $$\overline{\mathrm{OB}}$$ = b̅, $$\overline{\mathrm{OC}}$$ = c̅
Let V be the volume of the tetrahedron OABC. By definition the volume V is given by V = $$\frac{1}{3}$$ (area of the base ΔOAB)
(Length of the perpendicular from C to the base ΔOAB)

CN is the perpendicular from C to AOAB and CM is the perpendicular from C on to the supporting line of a̅ × b̅ so that CN = OM = Length of the projection of c onto a̅ × b̅.

Question 45.
Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (3, -2,1) and perpendicular to the vector (4, 7, -4).
The vector equation of the plane is
[r̅ – (3 i̅ – 2 j̅ + k̅)j̅ . (4 i̅ + 7 j̅ – 4k̅) = 0
⇒ r̅ . (4i̅ + 7j̅ – 4k̅) – (12 – 14 – 4) = 0
⇒ r̅ . (4 i̅ + 7 j̅ – 4k̅) +6 = 0
The Cartesian equation is 4x + 7y – 4z + 6 = 0

## TS Inter Second Year Maths 2A Random Variables and Probability Distributions Important Questions Long Answer Type

Students must practice these Maths 2A Important Questions TS Inter Second Year Maths 2A Random Variables and Probability Distributions Important Questions Long Answer Type to help strengthen their preparations for exams.

## TS Inter Second Year Maths 2A Random Variables and Probability Distributions Important Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
The probability distribution of a random variable X is given below:

Find the value of k and the mean and variance of X. [AP – Mar. 2019, AP- Mar. 2017: May ‘14, ’13, May ’14, ’12, ’10].
Solution:
Given that

is the probability distribution of a random variable X.
i) We know that,
 P(X = xr) = 1
i.e., Sum of probabilities = 1
P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) + P(X = 4)+ P(X = 5) = 1
k + 2k + 3k + 4k + 5k = 1
15k = 1
k = $$\frac{1}{15}$$

ii) Mean of X is
μ = $$\sum_{r=1}^5$$ P(X = xr) xr
= 1 (k) + 2 (2k) + 3 (3k) + (4k) 4 + (5k) 5
= k + 4k + 9k + 16k + 25k = 55 k
= 55($$\frac{1}{15}$$) = $$\frac{11}{3}$$

iii) Variance of X is
σ2 = $$\sum_{r=1}^5$$ P(X = xr) xr2 – μ2
= k(1)2 + 2k(2)2 + 3k(3)2 + 4k (4)2 + 5k (5)2 – ($$\frac{11}{3}$$)2
= k(1) + 2k(4) + 3k(9) + 4k(16) + 5k(25) – $$\frac{121}{9}$$
= k + 8k + 27k + 64k + 125k – $$\frac{121}{9}$$
= 225k – $$\frac{121}{9}$$
= 225 ($$\frac{1}{15}$$) – $$\frac{121}{9}$$
= 15 – $$\frac{121}{9}$$
= $$\frac{135-121}{9}=\frac{14}{9}$$.

Question 2.

is the probability distribution of a random variable X. find the value of k and the variance of X.
Solution:

is the probability distribution of a random variable X.
We know that,
$$\sum_{r=-2}^3$$ P(X = xr) = 1
i.e., Sum of probabilities = 1
P(X = – 2) + P(X = – 1) + P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) = 1
0.1 + k + 0.2 + 2k + 0.3 + k = 1
4k + 0.6 = 1
4k = 1 – 0.6
4k = 0.4
k = 0.1
k = $$\frac{1}{10}$$
Mean of X is μ = $$\sum_{r=-2}^3$$ (X = xr) . xr
= (- 2) (0.1) + (- 1) k + 0(0.2) + 1(2k) + 2(0.3) + 3k
= – 0.2 – k + 0 + 2k + 0.6 + 3k
= 0.4 + 4k
= 0.4 + 4 ($$\frac{1}{10}$$)
= 0.4 + 0.4 = 0.8
= $$\frac{8}{10}=\frac{4}{5}$$
Variance of X is σ2 = $$\sum_{r=1}^5$$ P(X = xr) xr2 – μ2
= (- 2)2 (0.1) + k(- 1)2 + (0.2) (0)2 + 2k(1)2 0.3(2)2 + k(3)2 – ($$\frac{4}{5}$$)2
= 4 . (0.1) + k . 1 + 0.2 (0) + 2k . 1 + 0.3(4) + k . 9 – $$\frac{16}{25}$$
= 0.4 + k + 0 + 2k + 1.2 + 9k – $$\frac{16}{25}$$
= 1.6 + 12k – $$\frac{16}{25}$$
= $$\frac{16}{10}+\frac{12}{10}-\frac{16}{25}$$
= $$\frac{160+120-64}{100}=\frac{216}{100}$$ = 2.16.

Question 3.
A random variable X has the following probability distribution.

Find i) k
ii) the mean and
iii) P(0 < X < 5). [May ’12, ’10, ’08, March ‘09, Board Paper] [AP – May, Mar.16; TS – Mar. ‘18, ‘16]
Solution:

is the probability distribution function.
i) We know that,
$$\sum_{\mathbf{r}=0}^7$$ P(X = x) = 1
i.e., Sum of the probabilities = 1
P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) + P(X = 4) + P(X = 5) + P(X = 6) + P(X = 7)=
0 + k + 2k + 2k + 3k + k2 + 2k2 + 7k2 + k = 1
10k2 + 9k – 1 = 0
10k2 + 10k – k – 1 = 0
10k (k + 1) – 1(k + 1) = 0
(k + 1) (10k – 1) = 0
k + 1 = 0 (or) 10k – 1 = 0
k = – 1 (or) k = $$\frac{1}{10}$$
k = – 1 does not satisfy the given probabilities.
∴ k = $$\frac{1}{10}$$.

ii) The mean of X is
μ = $$\sum_{r=0}^7$$ (X = xr) . xr
= 0 . 0 + 1(k) + 2(2k) + 3(2k) + 4(3k)+ 5(k2) + 6(2k2) + 7 (7k2 + k)
= 0 + k + 4k + 6k + 12k + 5k2 + 12k2 + 49k2 + 7k
= 66k2 + 30k
= $$66\left(\frac{1}{10}\right)^2+30\left(\frac{1}{10}\right)$$
= $$\frac{66}{100}+\frac{30}{10}$$
= 0.66 + 3 = 3.66.

iii) P(0 < X < 5)
= P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) + P(X = 4)
= k + 2k + 2k + 3k
= 8k = 8($$\frac{1}{10}$$)
= 0.8 = $$\frac{4}{5}$$.

Question 4.
The range of a random variable X is {0, 1, 2}. Given that P(X= 0) = 3c3, P(X = 1) = 4c – 10c2, P(X = 2) = 5c – 1. Find
(i) the value of c
(ii) P(X < 1),
(iii) P (1 < X ≤ 2) and P (0 < X ≤ 3). [March ‘13. ‘11, ‘07. ‘05, ‘95; May ‘11. 09. ‘91, TS – Mar. 2015; AP – Mar. 2015]
Solution:
The range of a random variable, X is {O, 1, 2}
Given that,
P(X = 0) = 3c3, P(X = 1) = 4c – 10c2,
P(X = 2) = 5c – 1
ï) We know that,
$$\sum_{\mathrm{r}=0}^2$$ P(X = xr) = 1
i.e., Sum of the probabilities = 1
P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) = 1
3c3 + 4c – 10c2 + 5c – 1 = 1
3c3 – 10c2 + 9c – 2 = 0
Let, f(c) = 3c3 – 10c2 + 9c – 2
If c = 1 then,
f(1) = 3(1)3 – 10(1)2 + 9(1) – 2
1(1) = 3 – 10 + 9 – 2
= 12 – 12 = 0
∴ c = 1 is a root of 1(c) = 0

3c2 – 7c + 2 = 0
3c2 – 6c – c + 2 = 0
3c (c – 2) – 1(c – 2) = 0
(c – 2) (3c – 1) = 0
c – 2 = 0 (or) 3c – 1 = 0
c = 2 (or) c = $$\frac{1}{3}$$
∴ c = 1, 2, $$\frac{1}{3}$$
c = 1, 2 does not satisfy the given probabilities.
∴ c = $$\frac{1}{3}$$

ii) P(X < 1) = P(X = 0)
= 3c3
= 3($$\frac{1}{3}$$)3
= $$\frac{3}{27}=\frac{1}{9}$$

iii) P(1 < X ≤ 2)
= P(X = 2)
= 5c – 1
= 5 . $$\frac{1}{3}$$ – 1
= $$\frac{5-3}{3}=\frac{2}{3}$$

iv)P(0 < X < 3) = P(X = 1) + P(X = 2)
= 4c – 10c2 + 5c – 1
= 9c – 10c2 – 1
= 9($$\frac{1}{3}$$) – 10($$\frac{1}{9}$$) – 1
= $$\frac{27-10-9}{9}=\frac{8}{9}$$.

Question 5.
The range of a random variable X is {1, 2, 3, …………..} and P(X = k) = (k = 1, 2, 3, ………………). Find the value of c and P(0 < X < 3). [TS – May 2015; March 2003, May 2009]
Solution:
The range of a random variable, X is {1, 2, 3, …………..}.
Given that,
P(X = k) =  k = 1, 2, 3 …………….
i) We know that,
 P(X = xk) = 1
i.e, sum of the probabilities = 1
P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) + …………………. = 1
$$\frac{\mathrm{c}}{1 !}+\frac{\mathrm{c}^2}{2 !}+\frac{\mathrm{c}^3}{3 !}+\ldots \ldots$$
$$e^x=1+\frac{x}{1 !}+\frac{x^2}{2 !}+\ldots \ldots$$
$$1+\frac{\mathrm{c}}{1 !}+\frac{\mathrm{c}^2}{2 !}+\frac{\mathrm{c}^3}{3 !}+\ldots \ldots$$
ec = 2.
c = loge 2

ii) P(0 < X < 3)
= P(X = 1) + P(X = 2)
= $$\frac{c}{1 !}+\frac{c^2}{2 !}=\frac{c}{1}+\frac{c^2}{2}$$
= loge 2 + $$\frac{\left(\log _{\mathrm{e}} 2\right)^2}{2}$$.

Question 6.
A cubical die is thrown. Find the mean and variance of X, giving the number on the face that shows up. [TS – Mar. 2019] [TS – May 2016; AP – May’ 2015]
Solution:
Let S be the sample space and X be the random variable associated with S, where P(X) is given by the following table.

Mean of X is μ = $$\sum_{r=1}^6$$ P(X = xr) . xr

Question 7.
If X is a random variable with probability distribution P(X = k) = $$\frac{(k+1) c}{2^k}$$, k = 0, 1, 2, …………….. then find c. AP – Mar. 2018;
Solution:
Given that,
P(X = k) = $$\frac{(k+1) c}{2^k}$$, k = 0, 1, 2, ………………. is the probability distribution of X.
We know that,
$$\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}$$ P(X = xk) = 1
i.e., sum of the probabilities = 1
P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) + ………………. = 1
$$\frac{1 \cdot c}{2^0}+\frac{2 \cdot c}{2}+\frac{3 \cdot c}{2^2}+\frac{4 \cdot c}{2^3}+\ldots \ldots$$ = 1

Question 8.
Let X be a random variable such that P(X = – 2) = P(X = – 1) = P(X = 2) = P(X = 1) = $$\frac{1}{6}$$ and P(X = 0) = $$\frac{1}{3}$$. Find the mean and variance of X.
Solution:
X is a random variable.
Given that, P(X = – 2) = $$\frac{1}{6}$$
P(X = – 1) = $$\frac{1}{6}$$
P(X = 2) = $$\frac{1}{6}$$
P(X = 1)= $$\frac{1}{6}$$
P (X = 0) = $$\frac{1}{6}$$

Question 9.
Two dice are rolled at random. Find the probability distribution of the sum of the numbers on them. Find the mean of the random variable.
Solution:
When two dice are rolled, the sample space S’ consists of 6 × 6 = 36.
Sample points are
S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1,4), (1, 5), (1, 6),
(2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6),
(3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3), (3, 4), (3, 5), (3, 6)
(4, 1), (4, 2), 4, 3), (4, 4), (4. 5), (4, 6),
(5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5,4), (5, 5), (5, 6),
(6, 1), (6, 2), (6, 3), (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6))
Let X denote the sum of the numbers on the two dice.
Then the range of X is {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, …………………, 12)
The probability distribution for X is given here under:

Question 10.
Find the constant ‘c’, so that F(x) = c $$\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)^x$$ x = 1, 2, 3, …….. is the p.d.f. of a discrete random variable X.
Solution:
Given that,
F(x) = c $$\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)^x$$, x = 1, 2,3,….. is the probability distribution function.
We know that,
$$\sum_{r=1}^{\infty}$$ P(X = xr) = 1
i.e., sum of the probabilities = 1
P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) + …………. = 1
$$c\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)^1+c\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)^2+c\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)^3+\ldots \ldots \ldots$$ = 1
$$c\left[\frac{2}{3}+\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)^2+\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)^3+\ldots \ldots\right]$$ = 1
Here, a = $$\frac{2}{3}$$, r = $$\frac{2}{3}$$
S = $$\frac{a}{1-r}$$
c$$\left[\frac{\frac{2}{3}}{1-\frac{2}{3}}\right]$$ = 1
$$c\left[\frac{\frac{2}{3}}{\frac{1}{3}}\right]$$ = 1
c(2) = 1
c = $$\frac{1}{2}$$.

Question 11.
In the experiment of tossing a coin n times, if the variable X denotes the number of heads ndP(X=4),P(X=5),P(X=6) are in arithmetic progression then find n. [March 2002]
Solution:
X follows binomial distribution with p = $$\frac{1}{2}$$, q = $$\frac{1}{2}$$
Given that,
P(X = 4), P(X = 5), P(X = 6) are in A.P.
Since a, b, c are in A.P. then
∴ 2P(X = 5) = P(X = 4) + P(X = 6)
We have,
P(X = r) = $${ }^n \mathrm{C}_1$$ prq1-r

12 (n – 4) = 30 + (n – 5) (n – 4)
12n – 48 = 30 + n2 – 9n + 20
n2 – 21n + 98 = 0
n2 – 14n – 7n + 98 = 0
n (n – 14) – 7(n – 14) = 0
(n – 14) (n – 7) = 0
n – 14 = 0 (or) n – 7 = 0
n = 14 (or) n = 7
∴ n = 7 (or) 14.